5 Jun

Adenoviruses were first isolated from adenoid tissue from ton- sillectomies of children and  from military patients with febrile illness (1953). There are  more  than 49 human serotypes, sev- eral of which have oncogenic potential. The  virus can  become latent in lymphoid tissue and  reactivated at a later date. Reac- tivation occurs  during immunosuppression but  it is  unclear how long the  virus persists (220,221).

Adenoviruses can cause acute respiratory illness, includ- ing pneumonia in military recruits or groups of infants. Most people  have been  infected with one serotype of adenovirus by age 15. Infants are  susceptible to pharyngitis, gastroenteritis, and, more  rarely, acute hemorrhagic cystitis and  hepatitis. More  recently, an  outbreak in  a  boarding vocational school indicates that adenoviruses may  prevail anywhere there are concentrated  crowded conditions and  new  groups of poten- tially susceptible persons are  frequently introduced (222). Adenovirus is also  a less  common cause of pneumonia in hos- pitalized children as  well  as  gastroenteritis in  infants and children, although immunization is not recommended for this population. Adenoviruses have received considerable atten- tion as a defective vector  to carry and  express foreign genes for therapeutic purposes (223). The genome is easy  to manipulate in vitro. Vaccines have been  available since  1971  as live, oral, enteric-coated tablets, available in two different strains: type 4 and  type  7 adenovirus vaccines. At  one  time, all  military recruits received adenovirus vaccine. Several studies of vac- cine recipients demonstrated a significant decrease, generally a 94–100% reduction, in acute respiratory disease due  to ade- novirus (224). Unfortunately, production of these vaccines was discontinued in 1996.  Between 10–12%  of unvaccinated mili- tary recruits become  ill with adenovirus infection during basic training. The  Department of Defense is  currently searching for an alternate source of the  product (225).

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