Appendix A: Classification

4 Apr

Appendix A: Classification

Classification: the subdivision of organisms into an evolutionary hierarchy of groups. The formal hierarchy proceeding from the largest to the smallest group is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. To allow further subdivisions, the names grade or division are sometimes placed between kingdom and phylum, the name branch is placed between phylum and class, the name cohort between class and order, and the name tribe between family and genus. In addition, the prefixes super- and sub- may be added to any group name.
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS

superkingdom Prokaryotes (q.v.)
kingdom 1 Prokaryotae
subkingdom Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria)
phylum Euryarchaeota (methanogens and halophiles) Archaeoglobus,
Halobacterium, Methanococcus, Pyrococcus, Thermoplasma
phylum Crenarchaeota (sulfur-dependent thermophiles)
Desulfurococcus, Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus
subkingdom Bacteria (formerly Eubacteria)
phylum Proteobacteria (Agrobacterium, Azotobacter, Escherichia,
Haemophilus, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Rickettsia,
Salmonella, Serratia, Treponema, Yersinia)
phylum Spirochaetae (Borrelia, Spirochaeta, Treponema)
phylum Cyanobacteria (Anabaena, Prochlorococcus, Prochloron, Synechocystis)
phylum Saprospirae (Saprospira)
phylum Chloroflexa (Chloroflexus)
phylum Chlorobia (Chlorobium)
phylum Aphragmabacteria (Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma)
phylum Endospora (Bacillus, Clostridium, Streptococcus)
phylum Pirellulae (Chlamydia)
phylum Actinobacteria (Actinomyces, Cornebacterium, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces)
phylum Deinococci (Deinococcus, Staphylococcus, Thermus)
phylum Thermotogae (Thermotoga)
superkingdom Eukaryotes (q.v.)
kingdom 2 Protoctista (q.v.)
phylum Archaeprotista (Barbulanympha, Giardia)
phylum Microspora (Nosema)
phylum Glaucocystophyta (Glaucocystis, Cyanospora)
phylum Caryoblastea (Pelomyxa)
phylum Dinoflagellata (Gonoyaulax)
phylum Rhizopoda (Amoeba)

APPENDIX A: CLASSIFICATION

phylum Chrysophyta (Ochromonas)
phylum Haptophyta (Prymnesium)
phylum Euglenida (Euglena)
phylum Cryptomonada (Chroomonas, Cryptomonas, Rhodomonas)
phylum Zoomastigina (animal flagellates, Leishmania, Trypanosoma)
phylum Xanthophyta (Vaucheria)
phylum Eustigmatophyta (Vischeria)
phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms, Diatoma)
phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae, Fucus, Macrocystis)
phylum Rhodophyta (red algae, Cyanidioschyzon, Polysiphonia)
phylum Gamophyta (conjugating green algae and desmids, Spirogyra and Micrasterias)
phylum Chlorophyta (green algae forming flagellated gametes, Acetabularia, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Mesostigma, Volvox)
phylum Actinopoda (radiolarians and heliozoans, Acanthocystis, Sticholonche)
phylum Foraminera (Fusulina, Globigerina)
phylum Ciliophora (ciliates, Paramecium, Stylonychia, Tetrahymena)
phylum Apicomplexa (Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium)
phylum Labyrinthulomycota (slime nets, Labryrinthula)
phylum Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds, Dictyostelium, Polysphondylium)
phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds, Echinostelium, Physarum)
phylum Plasmodiophoromycota (Plasmidiophora)
phylum Hypochytriomycota (Hypochytrium)
phylum Chytridiomycota (Blastocladiella)
phylum Oomycota (Phytophthora, Saprolegnia)
kingdom 3   Fungi (q.v.)
phylum Zygomycota (conjugating fungi, Mucor, Phycomyces, Pilobolus, Rhizopus)
phylum Basidiomycota (club fungi, Agaricus, Amanita, Puccinia, Schizophyllum, Ustilago)
phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi, Aspergillus, Neurospora, Penicillium,
Podospora, Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Sordaria)
kingdom  4   Animalia (q.v.)
subkingdom Parazoa (q.v.)
phylum Placozoa (Trichoplax)
phylum Porifera (sponges, Euplectella)
subkingdom Mesozoa (q.v.)
phylum Mesozoa (Dicyema)
subkingdom Eumetazoa (q.v.)
grade Radiata (q.v.)
phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterates)
class Hydrozoa (hydroids, Hydra)
class Scyphozoa (true jelly fish, Physalia)
class Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones, Metridium)
phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies, Mnemiopsis)
grade Bilateria (q.v.)
subgrade Protostomia (q.v.)
superphylum Acoelomata (q.v.)
phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
class Turbellaria (planarians)
class Trematoda (flukes, Schistosoma)
class Cestoda (tapeworms)

APPENDIX A: CLASSIFICATION
phylum Nemertina (Rhynchocoela) (ribbon worms)
phylum Gnathostomulida
superphylum Pseudocoelomata (q.v.)
phylum Acanthocephala (spiny-headed worms)
phylum Entoprocta (entoprocts)
phylum Aschelminthes (q.v.)
subphylum Rotifera (rotifers)
subphylum Gastrotricha (gastrotrichs)
phylum Loricifera (loriciferans)
subphylum Kinorhyncha (kinorhynchs)
subphylum Priapulida (priapulids)
subphylum Nematoda (round worms, Ascaris, Caenorhabditis, Parascaris)
subphylum Nematomorpha (Gordiacea) (horsehair worms)
superphylum Coelomata (q.v.)
division Tentaculata
phylum Phoronida (phoronids)
phylum Ectoprocta (bryozoa)
phylum Brachiopoda (brachiopods)
division Inarticulata (q.v.)
phylum Sipunculoidea (sipunculids)
phylum Mollusca (molluscs)
class Amphineura (chitins)
class Scaphopoda (tooth shells)
class Gastropoda (snails, Aplysia, Cepaea, Limnaea)
class Pelecypoda (bivalves, Crassostrea, Mytilus)
class Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, Nautilus)
division Articulata (q.v.)
phylum Echiuroidea (echiuroids)
phylum Pentastomida (tongue worms) (parasites)
phylum Tardigrada (water bears)
phylum Annelida (segmented worms)
class Polychaeta (marine worms)
class Oligochaeta (earthworms)
class Hirudinea (leeches)
phylum Onychophora (Peripatus)
phylum Arthropoda
branch Chelicerata
class Merostomata (king crabs)
class Pycnogonida (sea spiders)
class Arachnida (scorpions, opilionids, mites, spiders)
branch Mandibulata
class Crustacea
order Branchiopoda (shrimps)
order Ostracoda (ostracods)
order Copepoda (copepods)
order Cirripedia (barnacles)
order Malacostraca (lobsters and crabs)
class Myriapoda
order Diplopoda (millipedes)
order Chilopoda (centipedes)
class Hexapoda
subclass Entognatha
order Collembola (springtails)
order Protura (proturans)

order Diplura (campodeans)
subclass Insecta
cohort Apterogota (primitively wingless insects)
order Archaeognatha (machilids)
order Zygentoma (silverfish)
cohort Pterygota (winged insects)
subcohort Paleoptera (extended wing)
order Ephemeroptera (Mayflies)
order Odonata (dragonflies)
subcohort Neoptera (hinged wing)
superorder Hemimetabola (no pupal stage)
order Embioptera (embiids)
order Phasmida (stick insects)
order Orthoptera (grasshoppers)
order Grylloblatteria (grylloblatids)
order Dictyoptera (roaches, Blattella)
order Isoptera (termites)
order Dermaptera (earwigs)
order Psocoptera (booklice)
order Phthiraptera (sucking lice)
order Hemiptera (true bugs)
order Plecoptera (stone flies)
order Thysanoptera (thrips)
superorder Holometabola
order Coleoptera (beetles, Tribolium)
order Raphidioptera (snakeflies)
order Megaloptera (alder flies)
order Neuroptera (lacewings)
order Hymenoptera (Apis, Microbracon, Mormoniella)
order Trichoptera (caddis flies)
order Lepidoptera (moths, Biston, Bombyx, Ephestia, Lymantria)
order Mecoptera (scorpion flies)
order Siphonaptera (fleas)
order Diptera (Aedes, Anopheles, Chironomus, Culex, Drosophila, Glyptotendipes, Lucilia, Musca, Rhynchosciara, Sciara)
subgrade           Deuterostomia (q.v.)
phylum Echinodermata
class Crinoidea (sea lilies)
class Asteroidea (starfish)
class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars)
class Echinoidea (sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus)
class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms)
phylum Pogonophora (beard worms)
phylum Chordata (notochord-bearing animals)
subphylum Acraniata (q.v.)
branch Hemichordata (acorn worms and pterobranchs)
branch Urochordata (tunicates)
branch Cephalochordata (lancelets, Branchiostoma)
subphylum Craniata (q.v.)
branch Agnatha (jawless vertebrates)
class Cyclostomata (lampreys)

branch Gnathostoma (jawed vertebrates)
class Chondrichthyes (elasmobranchs)
class Osteichthyes (bony fish)
subclass Palaeopterygii (ancient fishes)
order Acipenseriformes (sturgeons)
order Semionotiformes (gars)
subclass Neopterygii (modern fishes)
order Salmoniformes (Salmo)
order Anguilliformes (eels)
order Cypriniformes (Carassius, Oryzias)
order Cyprinidontiformes (Danio, Fundulus, Lebistes)
order Perciformes (Tilapia, cichlids)
order Siluriformes (catfishes)
order Elopiformes (tarpons)
order Antheriniformes (Xiphophorus)
order Clupeiformes (herrings)
order Gasterosteiformes (sea horses)
order Pleuronectiformes (flounders)
order Tetraodontiformes (Takifugu, Tetraodon)
subclass Crossopterygii (lobe-finned fishes)
order Dipnoi (lungfishes, Protopterus)
order Actinista (coelacanths, Latimeria)
class Amphibia
order Apoda (caecilians)
order Urodela (salamanders, Ambystoma,
Notophthalmus, Pleurodeles, Triton, Triturus)
order Anura (frogs and toads, Rana, Xenopus)
class Reptilia (turtles, alligators, lizards, snakes)
class Aves (birds)
subclass Palaeognathae (flightless birds, ostriches, emus)
subclass Neognathae (modern birds)
order Anseriformes (ducks, Anas)
order Galliformes (quail, turkeys, Coturnix, Gallus)
order Columbiformes (pigeons and doves, Columba)
order Psittaciformes (parrots)
order Passeriformes (song birds)
class Mammalia
subclass Protheria (egg-laying mammals)
subclass Metatheria (marsupials, Monodelphis, Potorous)
subclass Eutheria (placental mammals)
order Insectivora (moles, shrews)
order Chiroptera (bats)
order Edentata (sloths)
order Carnivora (carnivores, Canis, Felis,
Vulpes, Mustela)
order Cetacea (whales)
order Proboscidea (elephants)
order Pinnipedia (seals)
order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates, Equus)

order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, Bos, Camelus, Ovis, Sus)
order Rodentia (rodents, Cavia, Chaetodipus,
Chinchilla, Dipodomys, Mesocricetus, Mus, Peromyscus, Rattus)
order Lagomorpha (rabbits, Oryctolagus)
order Scandentia (tree shrews)
order Dermoptera (flying lemurs)
order Primates (lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans, Cercopithecus, Gorilla, Homo, Macacca, Pan)
kingdom   5   Plantae
phylum Bryophyta (q.v.)
subphylum Hepaticae (liverworts, Sphaerocarpos)
subphylum Anthocerotae (hornworts)
subphylum Musci (mosses)
phylum Tracheophyta (vascular plants)
subphylum Psilophyta (Psilotum)
subphylum Lycopodophyta (clubmosses and quillworts)
subphylum Sphenopsida (horsetails)
subphylum Pteropsida (ferns and seed plants)
superclass Filicinae (ferns)
superclass Gymnospermae (cone-bearing, seed plants)
class Pteridospermophyta (seed ferns)
class Cycadophyta (cycads)
class Ginkgophyta (ginkgos)
class Coniferophyta (conifers)
class Gnetophyta (gnetophytes)
superclass Angiospermae (flowering plants)
class Dicotyledoneae
order Magnoliales (magnolia, avocado)
order Rosales (rose, apple, plum, strawberry, raspberry, currant, hemp)
order Leguminales (Glycine, Pisum, Phaseolus)
order Salicales (willows, Populus)
order Fagles (beech, oak, birch)
order Geraniales (Nasturtium, Pelargonium)
order Cactales (cactuses)
order Scrophulariales (Antirrhinum, Collinsia, privet)
order Ranales (buttercups, water lillies, lotus, Ranunculus)
order Myrtales (myrtle, eucalyptus, Oenothera)
order Cruciales (cabbage, turnip, Arabidopsis, radish)
order Cucurbitales (Cucurbita, Cucumis)
order Caryophyllales (carnations, Mirabilis)
order Gentianales (gentians, olives, lilacs, Vinca)
order Primulales (Primula)
order Malyales (Gossypium, linden, elm, Theobroma, jute)
order Rubiales (coffee, quinine)
order Papaverales (poppy)

order Hamamelidales (sycamore)
order Urticales (nettle, elm, mulberry)
order Jugandales (walnut, hickory)
order Linales (flax)
order Cornales (dogwood, mangrove)
order Proteales (macadamia nut)
order Sarranceniales (pitcher plant, sundew)
order Theales (tea)
order Umbellales (carrot, parsnip, celery, ginseng)
order Solanales (Datura, Lycopersicon,
morning glory, sweet potato, Nicotiana, Solanum)
order Rhamnales (grapes, ivy)
order Boraginales (heliotropes)
order Lamiales (lavender, mint, verbenas)
order Asterales (composites, silverswords,
daisies, sunflowers, Haplopappus)
class    Monocotyledoneae
order Palmales (palms)
order Graminales (grasses, Hordeum, Oryzea, Triticum, Zea)
order Liliales (lilies, tulips, amaryllis, iris, Colchicum)
order Commelinales (Tradescantia)
order Arales (callas, taros)
order Zingiberales (bananas)
order Orchidales (orchids)
order Bromeliales (pineapple)

For further information on the classification and evolution of life on earth consult:
Futuyma, D. J. 1998 Evolutionary Biology. Third edi- tion, Sinauer Associates Publishers, Sunder- land, MA. Margulis, L. 1974 The Classification and Evolution of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Chapter 1, pages 1-41. In The Handbook of Genetics, R. C. King, editor, vol. 1, Bacteria, Bacte- riophages, and Fungi, Plenum Press, New York.

Nielsen, C. 2001 Animal Evolution: Interrelation- ships of Living Phyla. Second edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Strickberger, M. L. 2000 Evolution. Third edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston. Tudge, C. 2000 The Variety of Life. A Survey and a Celebration of all the Creatures that Have Ever Lived. Oxford University Press, Oxford, En- gland.

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