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HUMORAL FACTORS IN CANCER CACHEXIA

5 Jun

As indicated earlier in this chapter, a variety of humoral or circulating factors influence the de- velopment of cancer cachexia and many nutritional aspects of the host-tumor relationship. Fur- thermore, the interactions and interrelations of many of these factors add to the complexity of the mechanisms  of cachexia seen in the tumor-bearing  host. No single [...]

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

5 Jun

Monoclonal antibodies are  a more recent approach to antiviral immunotherapy. These antibodies have been  developed for viruses such  as HIV, although extensive evaluation has  yet to be undertaken. A specific  monoclonal antibody against cellu- lar  IL-2 receptors (daclizumab) has  been  developed and  eval- uated for the  prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients (356). [...]

IMMUNOGLOBULINS

5 Jun

Antibodies that occur  in  mucosal secretions play  two  major roles  in antiviral immunity. One mechanism is to prevent the virus from  reaching host  target cells,  thus providing immu- nity  by exclusion. Usually the  presence of a mucosal barrier prevents the  virus from  establishing an  infection. A second mechanism is  to  neutralize viral infectivity by  binding [...]

Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

5 Jun

Although cytomegalovirus (CMV)  produces an  uncommon mononucleosis-like syndrome in  immunocompetent patients, its potential effects  in the  newborn and  immunocompromised patient can  be devastating. Congenital CMV is the  most  com- mon  intrauterine infection in the  United States, and  an  esti- mated 8000  American infants  develop neurologic or  fatal complications each  year because of this disease (281).  [...]

OTHER VACCINES

5 Jun

Vaccines for several other viral diseases are  currently in the early stages of development. At  least four  different types of hepatitis C vaccines are  in preclinical development. However, research for these candidate vaccines is hampered by the  lack of reproducible tissue culture or  a  convenient small animal model  for  testing (212).  Early studies in  chimpanzees [...]