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Cleft lip and palate and other craniofacial anomalies

16 May

Cleft lip and palate and other craniofacial anomalies

21.1. PREVALENCE
Cleft lip and palate is the most common craniofacial malformation, comprising 65 per cent of all anomalies affecting the head and neck. There are two distinct types of cleft anomaly, cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate, which result from [...]

Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery

16 May

Orthognathic surgery is concerned with the correction of dento-facial deformity. In the vast majority of cases a combined surgical and orthodontic approach is required to achieve an optimum result.

20.1. INDICATIONS
Patients with a craniofacial deformity, for example cleft lip and palate, may require orthognathic surgery to correct or mask their underlying abnormality.
Orthognathic [...]

Adult orthodontics

16 May

As dental awareness is growing and orthodontic appliances are now becoming more socially acceptable, a increasing number of adult patients are seeking orthodontic treatment. At the same time, a greater proportion of the general public are keeping their teeth for longer, which is resulting in an increasing demand for orthodontic treatment [...]

Functional appliances (N. E. Carter)

16 May

18.1. INTRODUCTION
The functional appliances are a group of orthodontic appliances which are quite distinct in the way that they work. In general they have no active components such as springs or elastics, but instead harness forces generated by the masticatory and facial musculature (they are often called myofunctional appliances). This is [...]

Fixed appliances

16 May

17.1. PRINCIPLES OF FIXED APPLIANCES
Fixed appliances are attached to the teeth and are thus are capable of a greater range of tooth movements than is possible with a removable appliance. Not only does the attachment on the tooth surface (called a bracket) allow the tooth to be moved vertically or tilted, but [...]