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Removable appliances

16 May

This chapter concerns those appliances that are fabricated mainly in acrylic and wire, and (as the name suggests) can be removed from the mouth. Most removable appliances are made for the upper arch. Functional appliances are made of the same materials, but work primarily by exerting intermaxillary [...]

Anchorage, tooth movement, and retention (B. Doubleday)

16 May

15.1. WHAT IS ANCHORAGE AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
Anchorage has been defined as the source of resistance to the forces generated in reaction to the active components of an appliance. Anchorage is required to prevent unwanted tooth movements.
Anchorage is a difficult concept to grasp, but it may be helpful [...]

Canines

16 May

14.1. FACTS AND FIGURES
Development of the upper and lower canines commences between 4 and 5 months of age. The upper canines erupt, on average, at 11–12 years of age. The lower canines erupt, on average, at 10–11 years of age.
In a Caucasian population (Gorlin et al. 1990): congenital absence of upper canines, [...]

Crossbites

16 May

13.1. DEFINITIONS

Crossbite: a discrepancy in the buccolingual relationship of the upper and lower teeth.

By convention the transverse relationship of the arches is described in terms of the position of the lower teeth relative to the upper teeth.

Buccal crossbite: the buccal cusps of the lower teeth occlude buccal to the buccal cusps [...]

Anterior open bite and posterior open bite

16 May

12.1. DEFINITIONS

Anterior open bite (AOB): there is no vertical overlap of the incisors when the buccal segment teeth are in occlusion (Fig. 12.1).

Posterior open bite (POB): when the teeth are in occlusion there is a space between the posterior teeth (Fig. 12.2).

Incomplete overbite: the lower incisors do not occlude with the [...]