When it is necessary to remove suspended solids from a liquid, the usual method is to filter or strain the liquid. The two methods differ only in the size of the mesh being used. Filtering removes the very small solids, and straining removes the larger solids. Because filtering and straining are for all practical purposes the same, this chapter will differentiate the two terms on the basis of application of the filter or strainer.
Filtration is a process used to remove suspended solids from a solution. Other processes such as demineralization remove ions or dissolved ions. Different filters and strainers are used for different applications. In general, the filter passage must be small enough to catch the suspended solids but large enough that the system can operate at normal system pressures and flows. Filters and strainers are used throughout most DOE facilities. They are used in hydraulic systems, oil systems, cooling systems, liquid waste disposal, water purification, and reactor coolant systems.
Figure 20 illustrates a typical multi-cartridge filter. The cartridges are cylinders and usually consist of a fiber yarn wound around a perforated metal core. The liquid being filtered is forced through the yarn, which is approximately 1/2 inch thick, and then through the perforations in the metal core to the filter outlet, which can be at either end. A cartridge filter may include several cartridges, the exact number depending on the liquid flow rate that must be handled.
In the filter assembly illustrated in Figure 21, the cartridges are held between plates so that the water must pass through the layer of yarn to reach the filter outlet. The type of yarn that is used depends on the application. Some of the fibers commonly used include resin-impregnated wool or cellulose, cotton-viscose, polypropylene, nylon, and glass. In some applications that involve high temperatures or pressures, porous metal cartridges are used. These cartridges are usually made of 316 stainless steel, but inconel, monel, and nickel are also used.
Depending on the fiber or metal that is used, cartridges are available that will filter out all particle matter down to a specified size. For example, a certain cartridge might be designed to remove all particles larger than 10 microns, one micron, or even 0.1 micron. (A micron is 10 -3 millimeters.) Cartridge filters have the advantage of being relatively inexpensive to install and operate. Instruments measure the differential pressure across these filters to let the operator know when a filter is plugged and must be replaced. When the cartridges are removed from radioactive systems, the radiation levels can be very high. For this reason, the cartridges may be withdrawn into a shielded cask for moving to a storage area or a solid waste processing area. When the porous metal cartridges become plugged, they can be cleaned ultrasonically and reused. When this is done, the cleaning solution becomes contaminated and must be processed as liquid radioactive waste.
Another type of cartridge filter is the wafer, or disk filter. In this filter, disks are stacked to form a cartridge and placed down over a central perforated pipe. Each disk is typically 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch thick and made of cellulose or asbestos fibers. Liquid that enters the disk filter moves up around the outside of the stack of disks, is forced between the disks, travels through the perforations in the central pipe, and then leaves the filter. The filtering action takes place as the liquid is forced between the disks. As with the smaller cartridges, if a disk filter is used to filter radioactive water, it may be very radioactive when it is removed, and must be handled very carefully. One way to remove a disk filter is by means of a crane, which lifts the filter out of its housing and moves it to a shielded container. The disposal problem is one of the major disadvantages of cartridge and diskcartridge filters.
A precoat filter eliminates the problem of physically handling radioactive materials, because the filter material (called the medium) can be installed and removed remotely. Inside the filter housing is a bundle of septums (vertical tubes, on which the filter medium is deposited). The septums in some filters are approximately 1 inch in diameter and 3 feet long and are usually made of perforated or porous metal (normally stainless steel). There may be several hundred of these septums in a filter. Septums in other filters are approximately 3 inches in diameter and 3 feet long and are made of porous stone or porous ceramic material. There are usually less than 100 of these larger septums in a filter. The filtering medium fibers may be finely divided diatomite, perlite, asbestos, or cellulose. Diatomite, the least expensive medium, is used to filter liquid waste that will be discharged from the plant. Cellulose is generally used for processing water that will be returned to a reactor, because diatomite can allow silica leaching. When a precoat filter is in use, water that enters the filter vessel passes through the filter medium that is deposited on the septums and then leaves through the outlet. Before the filter can be placed into operation, however, the filter medium must be installed; that is, the filter must be precoated. The first step in precoating the filter is to close the inlet and outlet valves to the filter. The filter medium used is mixed with demineralized water in an external mixing tank to form a slurry, which is pumped through the filter. Some of the filter medium deposits on the septums and is held there by the pressure of water on the outside of the septums. At the beginning of the precoating process, some of the fibers of the filter medium pass through the septums, either because they are smaller than the openings or because they pass through lengthwise. Thus, there is still some filter medium in the water as it leaves the filter, so the slurry is recirculated again and again until the water is clear. Clear water indicates that all of the filter medium is deposited on the septums, and the filter is precoated.
One characteristic of the precoating process is that a very even layer of filter medium (approximately 1/8 inch thick) is deposited on the septums. This occurs because the circulating slurry follows the path of least resistance. When the coating at one point reaches a certain thickness, the slurry takes the fibers to another point, and this process continues until precoating is complete. Because water pressure holds the filter in place, flow must be maintained through the recirculating loop to keep the medium from falling off. This is called a holding flow. As the inlet and outlet valves are opened for normal usage, called service flow, the holding flow is gradually cut off.
Backwashing Precoat Filters
After a filter has been precoated, it is put into service and kept on line until the pressure differential indicates that the filter medium is becoming plugged. When this occurs, the old filter medium is removed and the filter is precoated again. Filters are usually installed in pairs, so that one filter can remain in service while the other is undergoing the filter backwashing and precoating process. Since water pressure helps to hold the filter medium against the septums, some of the old filter medium will fall off as soon as this pressure is removed. Backwashing is used to remove the filter medium that does not fall off. Backwashing is usually done in one of two ways. With some filters, demineralized water is pumped backwards through the center of the septums, and the filter medium coating is knocked off by the water as it comes out through the septums. Most filters use a multi-step backwashing procedure. First, the inlet valve and the outlet valve are closed, and the drain valve and the top vent are opened to allow the water to drain. Then the drain valve and the vent are closed, and the inlet water valve is opened to raise the water level. The filter is equipped with a special high-domed top to trap and compress air. When the water inlet valve is closed and the drain valve is opened quickly, the compressed air forces water down through the center of the septums. This water knocks the filter medium off of the septums. With both types of backwashing, the filter medium coating that is removed is sluiced out through a drain line to a filter sludge tank, where it is stored for further processing. The filter is then precoated again and put back into service. With precoat filters, the type and quantity of filter medium is critical. If too little material or too coarse a material is used, some of the finely divided crud in the water may get into the openings of the septums. When the filter is backwashed, this crud is usually not removed. It continues to build up during subsequent use of the filter until the septums become so plugged that they have to be replaced.
If too much filter medium is used, the layer that builds up on the septums will bridge the area between the septums. When the filter is backwashed, these bridges are usually not removed. Therefore the bridging continues, and the filter runs become progressively shorter. Eventually, the filter must be opened and the filter medium must be removed manually. Precoat filters are much more complicated than cartridge filters, and the equipment required is much more expensive to install and maintain. The major advantage of precoat filters is the remote operation, which eliminates the physical handling of highly radioactive filter cartridges.
Deep-bed filters are usually found only in makeup water systems, where they are used to filter water after it has been treated in a clarifier. They are used to remove organic matter, chlorine, and very fine particulate matter.
A deep-bed filter is based on a support screen (decking), which is mounted a few inches above the bottom of the tank. The screen is perforated to allow water to flow through it. A coarse, aggregate layer of crushed rock or large lumps of charcoal is placed on top of the screen, and the deep bed itself (2 to 4 feet of granular anthracite or charcoal) is placed on top of the aggregate. The filter is sized so that there is 1 to 2 feet of “free board” above the deep bed. When the filter is in service, raw water is pumped in through a pipe that feeds a distribution pipe above the deep bed. The water is filtered as it percolates down through the granules. (Charcoal granules will filter out organic matter, chlorine, and fine particulates, while anthracite granules remove only the particulates.) The water collects in the bottom of the tank, below the support screen, and leaves the filter through a pipe in the bottom of the filter vessel.
Deep-bed filters, like precoat filters, are cleaned by backwashing. Water is pumped through the distribution piping near the top of the filter. The flow rate of the water is kept high enough to lift the granulated charcoal or anthracite up into the free space. The water washes away the deposits that have accumulated. When the backwash cycle is completed, the flow is stopped, and the granules settle back down into the filter bed. The filter can then be put back into service.
Metal-edged filters are used in the lubrication (oil) systems of many auxiliary units. A metaledged filter consists of a series of metal plates or disks. Turning a handle moves the plates or disks across each other in a manner that removes any particles that have collected on the metal surfaces. Some metal-edged type filters have magnets to aid in removing fine particles of magnetic materials.
Strainers are fitted in many piping lines to prevent the passage of grit, scale, dirt, and other foreign matter, which could obstruct pump suction valves, throttle valves, or other machinery parts. One of the simplest and most common types of strainers found in piping systems is the Y-strainer, which is illustrated in Figure 23.
Figure 24 illustrates three additional common types of strainers. Part A shows a typical sump pump suction bucket strainer located in the sump pump suction line between the suction manifold and the pump. Any debris that enters the piping is collected in the strainer basket. The basket can be removed for cleaning by loosening the strongback screws, removing the cover, and lifting the basket out by its handle. Part B of Figure 24 shows a duplex oil strainer commonly used in fuel oil and lubricating oil lines, where it is essential to maintain an uninterrupted flow of oil. The flow may be diverted from one basket to the other, while one is being cleaned.
Part C of Figure 24 shows a manifold steam strainer. This type of strainer is desirable where space is limited, because it eliminates the use of separate strainers and their fittings. The cover is located so that the strainer basket can be removed for cleaning.
If the filter or strainer cannot be easily removed for cleaning, the system design will usually include a flowpath for backwashing. The backwashing of precoated filters has already been explained because it is more complex than a typical backwash. The intent of a backwash is to flow liquid in the opposite direction of normal flow, creating a pressure that pushes the debris off the strainer or filter. The debris is flushed to a waste tank or drain. Normally, to establish a backwash lineup, the flowpath upstream of the inlet to the strainer or filter is closed, the flow path downstream of the outlet is closed, and a drain flowpath is opened.
The flush source is then opened and the flow goes into the outlet of the strainer or filter, through the strainer or filter, and exits the inlet to the backwash drain or waste tank, carrying the debris with it.
The important information in this chapter is summarized below.
Filters and Strainers Summary
A cartridge filter may be a single cartridge or multi-cartridge filter. The cartridges are cylinders that usually consist of a fiber yarn wound around a perforated metal core. The liquid being filtered is forced through the yarn and then through the perforations in the metal core to the filter outlet, which can be at either end. This type of filter is used to remove fine particles in any flow condition. Radioactive systems may use these because they are inexpensive and easy to replace. Precoat filters consists of a filter housing that contains a bundle of septums, (vertical tubes, on which the filter medium is deposited) usually made of perforated or porous metal (normally stainless steel), porous stone, or porous ceramic material. The filtering medium fibers may be finely divided diatomite, perlite, asbestos, or cellulose. Diatomite, the least expensive medium, is used to filter liquid waste that will be discharged from the plant. Cellulose is generally used for processing water that will be returned to the reactor, because diatomite can allow silica leaching. A deep-bed filter is based on a support screen (decking), which is mounted a few inches above the bottom of the tank. The screen is perforated to allow water to flow through it. A coarse, aggregate layer of crushed rock or large lumps of charcoal is placed on top of the screen, and the deep bed itself (2 to 4 feet of granular anthracite or charcoal) is placed on top of the aggregate. This type of filter is frequently used in raw water treatment. The bucket strainer is literally a bucket to catch debris. The bucket can be removed for cleaning by loosening the strongback screws, removing the cover, and lifting the bucket out by its handle. It is usually used in systems expected to have larger debris.
Filters and Strainers Summary (Cont.)
A duplex strainer is a strainer consisting of two sides with a basket in each side. Only one side is placed in service at a time. These are commonly used in fuel oil and lubricating oil lines, where it is essential to maintain an uninterrupted flow of oil. The flow may be diverted from one basket to the other, while one is being cleaned. If the filter or strainer cannot be easily removed for cleaning, the system design will usually include a flowpath for backwashing. The intent of a backwash is to flow liquid in the opposite direction of normal flow, creating a pressure that pushes the debris off the strainer or filter. The debris is flushed to a waste tank or drain. Normally, to establish a backwash lineup, the flowpath upstream of the inlet to the strainer or filter is closed, the flow path down stream of the outlet is closed, and a drain flowpath is opened. The flush source is then opened and the flow goes into the outlet of the strainer or filter, through the strainer or filter, and exits the inlet to the backwash drain or waste tank, carrying the debris with it.
end of text.
DOE – ANL-W, BNL, EG&G Idaho, EG&G Mound, EG&G Rocky Flats, LLNL, LANL, MMES, ORAU, REECo, WHC, WINCO, WEMCO, and WSRC.
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Project Number 6910-0024