Index

13 Mar

Index

A
ABR (area border router), 226, 270, 297
configuring, 735–738
summarizing, 718
verifying, 738–746
access
broadcast multiaccess networks, 202
IP. See IP
lists, 94
prioritization, 95–96
security, 94
Access layer
design, 91
hierarchical designs, 91
adding networks, 456
addresses
aggregation, 112
class addresses, 45
exhaustion, 68
hierarchies, 354–367
Integrated IS-IS, 350–354
Internet addresses, 45
IP, 712–722
IPv6, 108–117
ISO, 352
Layer 3, 41–50
major addresses, 45
multicast
IPv6, 112
link-state routing protocols, 161
NAT, 105–108
NET, 353–354
network addresses, 41– 45
next-hop, 533
private, 103–105
supernet addresses, 45
translating, 105–107
unicast, 111
VLSM addresses, 60
adjacencies, 317, 342, 357–358, 369
broadcast links, 358
NBMA links, 359
neighbors, 162, 786
OSPF, 187
point-to-point links, 358
troubleshooting, 317
adjacent OSPF neighbors, 187
administration
BGP, 535–536
fully meshed networks, 566
administrative distance
configuring, 637
routing protocols, 146–148
advanced distance vector protocol, EIGRP,
449
advantages
of CIDR, 55–56
of neighbors, 187
of policy routing, 674–675
of summarization, 67–68, 74
of VLSM, 57, 60
advertisements, 532
from BGP to IGP, 593–594
from IGP to BGP, 593
aggregate-address command, 533, 593
aggregate global IPv6 unicast addresses, 111
aggregation
addresses, 112
routes, 64, 519, 533
SLA, 113
algorithms
Bellman Ford routing, 144
Dijkstra, 199
DUAL, 139, 448, 462
allocating VLSM addresses, 60

alternate paths, 458
alternatives to summarization, 71
applications, NAT, 105–108
applying BGP, 517
area area-id stub command, 302
area area-id stub no-summary command, 303
area border router (ABR), 226, 270, 297
configuring, 735–738
summarizing, 718
verifying, 738–746
area default-cost command, 303
Area field, 351
area range command, 299
area virtual-link command, 305
areas, 342
boundaries, 269
design considerations, 385–386, 812
interarea routing, 354
routing, 355, 357
types of, 272
ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary
Router), 270
assigning IP VLSM subnets, 62–63
attributes
BGP, 523
tuning, 586–592
verifying, 590
local preference, 586
next-hop, 528
of OSPF, 162
Originator-ID, 568
weight, 586
autoconfiguration. See also configuration
IPv6 multicast addresses, 113
auto-cost command, 231
auto-cost reference-bandwidth command,
230
automatic summarization, 68
Autonomous System Boundary Router
(ASBR), 270
autonomous systems, 150, 513–518, 536. See
also BGP
avoiding routing loops when redistributing, 624
B
backbones
areas, 273
routers, 270
backup designated routers, 188
bandwidth
configuring over NBMA clouds, 491
multipoint networks, 490
NBMA clouds, 490
reduction of (EIGRP), 449
bandwidth command, 230, 489
bandwidth-percent command, 491
Bellman Ford routing algorithm, 144
best path selection, Integrated IS-IS, 383–384,
811
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), 509
applying, 517
attributes, 523, 528
communications with autonomous systems,
513–518
components, 513
configuration commands, 530–535
connections, 536–537
convergence, 165
default metrics, 635
iBGP
building networks, 562
configuring, 566–574
requirements, 562–566
verifying, 575–577

IGP redistribution, 593
Internet, 583–585
managing, 535–536
overview of, 518–519
CIDR, 519
policy-based routing, 521–529
selection process, 529–530
paths, 586–592
route aggregation, 533
terminology, 515
traffic, 578–582
BGP-4 (Border Gateway Protocol version 4)
internal BGP, 163
prefix lists, 579
verifying configurations, 588–590
bit allocation, 47
Border Gateway Protocol. See BGP
borders. See ABR
boundaries, selection of, 269
broadcasts
Frame Relay, 405
modes, 236
multiaccess networks, 202
next-hop attributes, 528
OSPF network topologies, 202
building
neighbor tables, 453
routing tables, 194
burned-in addresses (MAC address), 113
C
caches, 27
case studies, VLSM, 57, 59
CBWFQ (class-based weighted fair queuing),
96
characteristics of Layer 3 addresses, 42
checking OSPF configurations
multiarea networks, 309
single routers, 237
show ip ospf database, 240
show ip ospf interface, 242, 244
show ip ospf neighbor, 244, 246
show ip protocols, 247–248
show ip route, 249
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 50
advantages of, 55–56
BGP overview, 519
definition of, 51
example of, 53, 73
example of use in case study, 53
IP addressing and the Internet, 52
circuits, 342. See also connections
Cisco routers, 26. See also routers
Cisco-specific NBMA configurations, 205
Class addresses, 45
class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ),
96
classes, IP addresses, 45
classful IP routing protocols, 11
classful routing protocols, 49–50
classless interdomain routing. See CIDR
classless routing protocols, 11–12, 138, 771
CLNP (Connectionless Network Protocol),
342
CLNS (Connectionless Network Service), 342
clusters, 569
CLV (Code/Length/Value), 342
commands
aggregate-address, 533
area commands
area area-id stub, 302
area area-id stub no-summary, 303
area default-cost, 303
area range, 299
area virtual-link, 305
auto-cost, 231
auto-cost reference-bandwidth, 230
bandwidth, 229–230, 489, 491
bandwidth-percent, 491
clns routing, 398
configuration, 530–535
optional, 481–491, 824–825
required, 479–481
cost, 229–231
debug, 250, 421–422, 496, 744
debug commands for EIGRP, 496
debug ip ospf adjacency, 195
default metric, 636
distance, 638, 647
distribute-list in, 650
distribute-list out, 650
EIGRP configuration, 479
fair-queue x y z interface configuration, 96
frame-relay map clns, 405
internal routers, 224

ip commands
ip classless, 12
ip hello-interval eigrp, 487
ip hold-timer EIGRP, 488
ip ospf cost, 230
ip ospf network, 232–233
ip ospf network non-broadcast, 236
ip ospf network point-to-multipoint
non-broadcast, 235
ip route, 20
ip unnumbered, 68
match, 681
multiarea OSPF networks, 296–308
neighbor, 234–236
network, 226, 297, 480
no ip address, 237
no ip classless, 12
no-summary, 303
ODR configuration, 25
ospf commands
ospf auto-cost, 231
ospf auto-cost reference-bandwidth,
230
ospf auto-cost reference-bandwidth
router global configuration, 230
ospf neighbor, 234
OSPF network command, 225
passive-interface, 481
prefix-list, 579
priority, 96, 188, 231
redistribute, 633, 635
redistribute connected subnets, 227
route-map, 686
router ospf process number, 225, 296
set, 631, 676, 682
show commands, 238, 407
show clns interface, 412, 414
show clns neighbor, 759
show clns neighbor detail, 761
show clns neighbors, 409–411
show clns neighbors detail, 410
show interface, 489
show ip bgp, 590, 759
show ip eigrp neighbors, 492, 743
show ip eigrp topology, 492–495, 742
show ip eigrp topology all, 492
show ip eigrp traffic, 492, 495
show ip ospf, 238, 240, 252
show ip ospf border-routers, 309
show ip ospf database, 238, 240, 252
show ip ospf interface, 238–244, 252
show ip ospf neighbor, 195, 244, 246
show ip prefix-list, 581
show ip protocols, 247–248, 743
show ip route, 17, 249, 744
show ip route eigrp, 491
show isis database, 414, 416, 761
show isis database detail, 416–419
show isis spf-log, 419, 421
show memory free, 269
show processes cpu, 269
show running-config, 724
summarization, 300
variance, 144, 485–486
communications with autonomous systems,
513–518
compatibility, IGRP, 450
components
BGP, 513
EIGRP, 450–451
composite metrics, EIGRP, 450
configuration
ABRs, 735–746
administrative distance, 638
autoconfiguration, 113
bandwidth over NBMA clouds, 491
BGP, 535–536
commands
BGP, 530–535
multiarea OSPF networks, 296–308
default metrics, 636
default static routes, 21
designated routers, 189
EIGRP
optional commands, 485, 490–491,
824–825
required commands, 479–481
floating static routes, 22
Integrated IS-IS, 397–398, 427–436
NMBA, 404, 407
routing level, 399–401
summarization, 401–403
metrics, 635
monitoring, 684–688
neighbor tables, 452
ODR, 23–25

OSPF, 224–228, 723–724
broadcast mode, 236
Frame Relay, 236–237
in NBMA mode, 235
in point-to-multipoint mode, 236
in point-to-point mode on a Frame
Relay subinterface, 236
NBMA, 235
on a single router, 232
on internal routers, 225
options, 228–233
point-to-multipoint mode, 235–236
single routers, 237–249
troubleshooting, 249–250, 268–269
verifying, 724–731
prefix lists, 580
redistribution, 632
RID, 229
RIPv2, 142
route reflectors, 571
router ID, 228
routing tables, 460
static routes, 20
summarization, 723–731
syntax, 633
topology tables, 454
virtual links, 306
working configurations, 308
connections
BGP, 536–537
CIDR, 519
controlling traffic, 578–582
iBGP, 562
Internet, 583–585
overview of, 518–519
policy-based routing, 521–529
selection process, 529–530
iBGP, 562
layer design, 91
NAT, 105–108
remote devices, 114
stub areas, 723–731
content of neighbor tables, 452
controlling
BGP traffic, 578
redistribution, 632
terminal access, 94
convergence, 148, 784
BGP, 165
EIGRP, 150
IGRP, 149
IS-IS, 165
OSPF, 165
RIPv1, 149
conversion, RIP to EIGRP, 703
Core layer, 92
cost, 229, 231
counting to infinity, 140, 144
CSNP (complete sequence number packet), 342
custom queuing, 96
D
databases
forwarding, 202
interarea routing, 354
topologies, 197
debug commands, 250, 421–422, 744
debug ip ospf adjacency, 195
debug ip policy, 684
EIGRP, 496
debugging OSPF multiarea networks, 316.
See also troubleshooting
decision process (Integrated IS-IS), 383–384,
811
default metrics, 229, 231, 636
default networks, 647
default routes, 14
IGRP, 642
redistribution, 641
default static routes, 21
default-metric command, 635
defining
network advertisements, 532
peer-groups, 530
deleting
paths, 458
routes, 193–201
deployment of EIGRP, 735–738
design. See also configuration
areas, 385–386, 812
EIGRP, 468
iBGP, 566–574
IP networks, 99–105
OSPF, 723–731
designated router (DR), 188
backup designated routers, 188

determining with priority command, 231
electing, 189–190
OSPF, 189–190
priority command, 231
purpose for, 188
designation of OSPF, 702
destination address rotary translation, 107, 778
determining policy-based routes, 674, 840
devices, remote connections, 114
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol), 103
diagrams, 701. See also maps
Diffusing Update Algorithm. See DUAL
Dijkstra algorithm, 199
DIS (designated intermediate system), 343
disadvantages
of fully meshed networks, 566
of policy routing, 675
discontiguous networks, 69–70
discovery routes, OSPF, 196
distance command, 638
distance vector metrics, 139
distance vector protocols, 782
EIGRP, 138
IGRP, 143–145, 784
routing loops, 139
distribute lists, 95, 631
distribute-list in command, 650
distribute-list out command, 650
Distribution layer, 91
DNS (Domain Name System), 103
Domain Specific Part (DSP), 351
dotted decimal form, 47
down state, 196
DSP (Domain Specific Part), 351
DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm), 139,
448, 462
Dual IS-IS. See Integrated IS-IS
dynamic election of designated routers, 189
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
See DHCP
dynamic routes, 14
dynamic source address translation, 107
E
EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP), 145
configuring, 479–491, 638
optional commands, 481–491,
824–825
required commands, 479–481
convergence, 150
default metrics, 636
defaults in bandwidth utilization, 489
distance vector protocols, 138
enterprise networks, 441–447
components, 450–451
design, 468
features, 447–450
operation, 451–466
Hello interval timers, 487
hold timers, 488
load balancing, 485
metrics, 460
optional commands, 481
RIP conversion, 703
simple redistribution, 643
summarization, 482
terminology, 851, 860
transitions
deploying, 735–738
planning, 731–734
verifying, 738–746
troubleshooting, 496
tuning, 487
verifying, 491–496
verifying operations, 491
debug commands, 496
show ip eigrp neighbors, 492
show ip eigrp topology, 493
show ip eigrp traffic, 495
WAN optional commands, 489
election. See selection
enable password, 724
enabling OSPF routing protocol, 225, 296
Enhanced IGRP. See EIGRP
entering routes, 19, 193–201
enterprise networks, 441–447
components, 450–451
design, 468
features, 447–450
operation, 451–466
exchange process, 195–196
exchange state, 196
existing IP networks, designing IP addresses
for, 101
exstart state, 196

extension headers, 114
exterior routing protocols, 150
external BGP, 163, 562
F
fast switching, 680–682
feasible successors, 150, 465
features
of EIGRP, 447–450
of NAT, 107–108, 119
fields
Area, 351
ID, 351
Logical Hop, 16
Metric, 15
Network, 14
Outgoing Interface, 15
routing tables, 14
SEL, 351
filtering redistribution, 650
finite-state machines, DUAL, 462
firewalls. See security
first octet rule, 49
floating static routes, 22, 148
forcing next-hop addresses, 533
formatting, 454. See also configuration
Hello packets, 361–371
IPv6 addresses, 110
LSPs, 363–364
neighbor tables, 452
networks, 90
hierarchical designs, 90–91
scaling, 90
NSPs, 365
routing tables, 460
forwarding
databases, 202
process (Integrated IS-IS), 385
Frame Relay
broadcast Integrated IS-IS, 405
OSPF, 236–237
subinterfaces, 236
topologies, 205
full state, 197, 792
fully meshed iBGP networks, 566
functions. See also commands
routing, 25
switching, 26
G
gateways, IGRP, 143
guidelines
criteria for IP network design, 90–103
ISO addressing, 352
H
hand-off points, 139
headers, IPv6, 114
Hello interval timers, 487
Hello packets
Integrated IS-IS, 361–371
OSPF, 191
Hello protocol, 187, 202–207
hiding network changes, 67
hierarchical designs, 91. See also design
Access layer, 91
Core layer, 92
creating, 90–91
design rules for layers, 92
Distribution layer, 91
hierarchies, Integrated IS-IS, 354–367
hold timers, 488
holddown, RIPv1, 141, 151, 783
hops, 16, 139
hybrid multipoint networks, 490
I
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority), 46
iBGP (internal BGP)
configuring, 566–574
networks, 562
requirements, 562–566
verifying, 575–577
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers), 46
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol),
97
ID field, 351
identifying neighbors, 530
IDP (Initial Domain Part), 351
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)
redistributing between BGP, 593
IS-IS. See IS-IS

IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol),
143, 145, 784
compatibility, 450
convergence, 149
default metrics, 636
distance vector routing protocols. See
distance vector protocols
implementation. See also configuration
IP access lists, 93
IS-IS networks, 746–763
multiple areas, 269
incremental updates
EIGRP, 448
link-state routing protocols, 161
init state, 196
Initial Domain Part (IDP), 351
Integrated IS-IS, 343
adjacencies, 357–358, 369
broadcast links, 358
NBMA links, 359
point-to-point links, 358
areas
design considerations, 385–386, 812
routing, 355, 357
broadcast Frame Relay, 405
configuring, 397–398, 427–436
decision process, 383–384, 811
forwarding process, 385
hierarchical address structures, 354–367
ISO addressing, 350, 352
NETs, 352, 354
NSAPs, 352
L1 routers, 354
L2 routers, 354
Level 1-2 routers, 355
LSP formats, 363–364
neighbors, 357
NMBA, 404, 407, 816
NSP formats, 365
packet types, 361–362, 370–371
receive process, 385
route summarization, 387
routing levels, 399–401
show commands, 407
summarization, 401–403
TLVs, 365–367
troubleshooting, 419–422
update process, 379–382, 810
verifying operation, 407–408
versus OSPF, 346, 348–350
interarea routing, 354
interdomain routing, 51
interfaces
bandwidth command, 229
EIGRP, 479–491
loopback, 228
null. See null interfaces
Outgoing Interface field, 15
redistribution, 628
routers, 400
static routes, 640
subinterfaces, 206
interior routing protocols, 150
internal BGP, 562
internal routers, 270. See also routers
loopback interfaces, 228
OSPF
configuring, 224
options, 228–233
Internet. See also connections
BGP, 583–585
IP addresses, 45, 47, 51, 52
multiple connections, 583
private addresses on, 103–105
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. See
IANA
Internet authoritative bodies, IP addresses,
46
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers. See ICANN
Internet Gateway Routing Protocol. See
IGRP
IP (Internet Protocol)
access lists
implementing, 93
uses of, 93
addresses, 45, 72
bit allocation, 47
classes, 45
Internet, 45–52
optimizing space, 61–64
planning, 712–722
private, 103–105
subnet masks, 47–50
networks
design criteria for, 90–103
designing, 99–103
private addresses, 104–105

routes, 403
subnetting, 41–50
assigning VSLM to WAN, 62–63
rules for, 48
ip commands
ip classless command, 12
ip hello-interval eigrp command, 487
ip hold-time EIGRP command, 488
ip ospf cost, 230
ip ospf network, 233
ip ospf network non-broadcast, 236
ip unnumbered, 68
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), 108–117
IS-IS
convergence, 165
implementing, 746–763
link-state routing protocols, 163
ISO addresses, 352
NETs, 352–354
NSAPs, 352
K
keepalives, 518
L
L1 routers, 344, 354, 858
L1-2 routers, 344, 858
L2 routers, 344, 354, 858
LAN Hello packets, 362
Layer 3
addresses
definition of networks, 41
IP subnetting, 41–50
need for, 37
network characteristics of, 42
protocol independence (EIGRP), 449
layers
Access, 91
Core, 92
design rules for, 92
Distribution, 91
function of, 91
traffic, 92
leaking local server traffic, 91
Level 1-2 routers, 355
link local IPv6 unicast address, 111
link-state advertisements (LSAs), 161, 272
link-state routing protocols, 160–164, 166
networks, 160–161
path selection, 161
updating local network tables, 161
lists
access. See IP
distribute, 95
prefixes
configuring, 580
verifying, 581
LLQ (low-latency queuing), 96
load balancing
EIGRP, 485
RIPv1, 141, 152
loading state, 197, 791
local preference attribute, 586–588
local server traffic, leaking, 91
logic, route maps, 676
logical AND, subnet mask IP addresses, 47
logical connections, iBGP, 562
Logical Hop field, 16
longest matches, 100
loopback interface, 228
loopback IPv6 unicast addresses, 111
loop-free
networks, 448
routing tables, 449
loops, 139–140, 160–164
low-latency queuing (LLQ), 96
LSAs (link-state advertisements), 161, 272
LSPs (link-state packet), 344, 380
M
maintenance. See also troubleshooting
redistribution, 650
topology tables, 455
topology databases, 199
major addresses, 45
management
BGP, 535–536
fully meshed networks, 566
manual configuration
designated routers, 189
RID, 228
manual summarization, 69
maps
routes, 631
monitoring, 684–688

logic, 676
topologies, 701
match commands, 678, 681
match statements, 631, 673, 686, 841
maximum transmission unit (MTU), 144
message types, BGP, 562
Metric field, routing tables, 15
metrics
configuring, 635
distance vector metrics, 139
distance vector routing protocols, 139
EIGRP, 460
OSPF, 201
routing, 621–650
mobility, IPv6, 115
modes, configuring PSPF, 234
modification
default metrics, 229–231
routers, 400
routes, 193–201
routing protocols, 146–148
monitoring
networks, 407
policy-based routing, 684–688
MTU (maximum transmission unit), 144
multiarea OSPF networks
configuration commands for, 296–308
troubleshooting, 315–317
verifying, 309–314
multicast addresses
EIGRP updates, 448
IPv6, 112
link-state routing protocols, 161
multihoming, 583
multiple areas, 269–273
implementing, 269
operations, 274
multiple Internet connections, 584
multipoint networks, configuring, 490
N
NAT (Network Address Translation), 105–108
features of, 107–108, 119
IPv6, 108–117
NBMA (nonbroadcast multiaccess) network,
203
clouds, 490
Frame Relay, 405
mode, 234–235
OSPF, 205
choosing topologies, 206
Cisco-specific, 205
configuring, 235
Frame Relay topologies, 205
network topologies, 203
RFC-complaint, 205
subinterfaces, 207
neighbor command, 236
neighbors, 357
identifying, 530
OSPF, 187
adjacent neighbors, 187
designated routers, 189–190
finding with exchange process, 195–
196
hello packets, 191
searching, 195
tables
building, 453
creating, 452
NETs (network entity titles), 344, 353, 859
Network Address Translation. See NAT
network command, 226, 297
EIGRP, 480
OSPF, 225–228
Network field, 14–15
networks, 41
addresses, 41–45
bit allocation, 47
translating, 105–107
advertisements, 532
broadcast multiaccess, 202
congestion, 90
creating, 90
hierarchical designs, 90–91
scaling to reduce congestion, 90
default, 647
definitions of, 42
discontiguous networks. See discontiguous
networks
enterprise
components (EIGRP), 450–451
design (EIGRP), 468
EIGRP, 441–447
features (EIGRP), 447–450
operation (EIGRP), 451–466
hiding changes, 67

hierarchical designs, 91
Access layer, 91
Core layer, 92
Distribution layer, 91
rules for each layer, 92
iBGP
building, 562
configuring, 566–574
requirements, 562–566
verifying, 575–577
IP
design criteria for, 90–103
subnetting, 41–50
link-state routing protocols, 160–161
loop-free, 448
monitoring, 407
OSPF, 202
broadcast multiaccess, 202
NBMA, 203
point-to-multipoint, 203
point-to-point, 203
virtual links, 182, 204
point-to-multipoint, 203
point-to-point, 203
reducing, 98
topologies
mapping, 701
tables, 456
traffic
null interfaces, 97
reducing, 96
types of, 202–207
Next Logical Hop field, 17
next-hop addresses, 533
next-hop attribute, 528
no ip address, 237
no ip classless command, 12
nonbroadcast multiaccess. See NBMA
NPDUs (network protocol data units),
344, 859
NSAP (network service access point), 344
NSEL (network selector), 344
null interfaces, 96
controlling routing updates, 630
internet example, 97
intranet example, 98
reducing network traffic, 98
numbering, 225
O
ODR (On Demand Routing), 23–25
OL (Overload) bit, 345
Open Shortest Path First. See OSPF
open standards, 184
operations
EIGRP, 451–466
multiple area OSPF, 274
optimizing IP address spaces, 61–64
optional commands, EIGRP, 481
options
cost, 231
internal routers, 228–231
OSPF, 228–233
ordinary areas, 272
Originator-ID attribute, 568
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), 184
checking configurations on a single router,
237
show ip ospf database, 240
show ip ospf interface, 242–244
show ip ospf neighbor, 244–246
show ip protocols, 247–248
show ip route, 249
commands for stub areas, 302
configuring, 224, 723–724
default metric, 635
internal routers, 224–231
in NBMA mode, 234–235
point-to-multipoint mode, 235–236
verifying, 724–731
virtual links, 305
convergence, 165
customizing, 224–228
broadcast mode, 236
Frame Relay, 236–237
NBMA, 235
options, 228–233
point-to-multipoint mode, 235–236
single routers, 237–249
troubleshooting, 249–250, 268–269
designating, 702
EIGRP
deploying, 735–738
planning, 731–734
verifying, 738–746
fundamentals of, 193

Hello protocol, 187
Integrated IS-IS, 346–350
link-state routing protocols, 162
multiarea networks, 296–308
troubleshooting, 315–317
verifying, 309–314
multiple area, 269–274
NBMA
choosing topologies, 206
Cisco-specific, 205
Frame Relay topologies, 205
RFC-compliant, 205
subinterfaces, 207
neighbors, 187
adjacent neighbors, 187
designated routers, 189–190
exchange process, 195–196
hello packets, 191
routes, 196
routing, enabling, 225
show commands
show ip ospf border-routers, 310
show ip ospf virtual-links, 312–313
in single areas, 193–201
tables
building, 193–194, 201
learning new routes, 200–201
maintaining, 199
topology databases, 197
updating topology tables, 199
terminology, 186
topologies, 202–207
broadcast multiaccess, 202
databases, 199
NBMA, 203
point-to-multipoint, 203
point-to-point, 203
virtual links, 182, 204
totally stubby areas, 303
ospf auto-cost, 231
ospf neighbor command, 234
Outgoing Interface field, 15
P
packets
Integrated IS-IS, 361–371
LSP, 363–364
NAT, 105–108
NSPs, 365
parameters, subnets, 745
passive interfaces
command, 640
redistribution, 628
static routes, 640
passive-interface command, 481
passwords, 724. See also security
PAT (port address translation), 107, 777
path selection
paths
alternate, 458
BGP, 586–592
deleting, 458
redundant, 642
selection
between routing protocols, 146
link-state routing protocols, 161
routing protocols, 148
patterns, traffics, 92
peer groups
defining, 530
iBGP, 574
physical connections, iBGP, 562
planning
IP addresses, 712–722
transitions, 731–734
plug and play. See autoconfiguration
point-to-multipoint mode
configuring, 235
OSPF, 235–236
point-to-multipoint networks, 203
point-to-point Hello packets, 362
point-to-point networks, 203, 491
poison reverse, split horizon with, 140
poisoned routes, 149
policy-based routing, 674–680
BGP, 521–529
characteristics of, 673
configuring route maps, 677, 681
fast switching, 680–682
monitoring, 684–688
route maps, 671–676
port address translation. See PAT
prefix lists, 579, 598–599
BGP, 578
examples of, 580–581
verifying configurations, 582

prefix routing. See CIDR
prevention of loops, 140
prioritization in access lists, 96
priority command, 231
priority queuing, 96
private addresses, 103–105
IP networks, 104–105
IPv6, 108–117
process ID, 225, 297
processing
fast-switching, 680–682
prefix lists, 579
protocols
definition of, 9
EIGRP, 441–447
components, 450–451
design, 468
features, 447–450
metrics, 460
operation, 451–466
Hello, 202–207
IGP. See IS-IS
independence at Layer 3, 449
link-state routing protocols. See link-state
routing protocols
routing
distance vector, 138–142
IPv6, 117
link-state, 160–164
protocols. See routing, protocols
RTP, 487
pseudonodes, 345
PSNP (partial sequence number packet),
345
purpose of routing protocols, 9
R
ranges, private addresses, 103–105
rapid convergence, 449
receive process (Integrated IS-IS), 385
receiving LSPs, 380
redistribute connected subnets, 227
redistribution, 146, 618
between BGP and IGP, 593
between routing protocols, 618, 625
commands, 633
default metrics, 635
examples of, 642–646
monitoring, 684–688
multiple protocols, 620
network convergence, 627
policy-based routing, 681
problems with, 615, 624
routing decisions that affect, 621–650
troubleshooting, 650
reduction
of bandwidth use (EIGRP), 449
network traffic, 96–98
size of routing tables, 67
redundant paths, redistribution without, 642
reliable transport protocol (RTP), 487
remote connections, 114
remote networks, alternate paths, 458
renumbering remote device connections,
114
requirements, BGP, 562–566
RFC-compliant, NBMA, 205
RID (router ID), 225
loopback interface, 228
manual configuration of, 228
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
default metrics, 635
EIGRP, 703
simple redistribution, 643
RIPv1 (Routing Information Protocol version
1), 140, 141, 149
RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol version
2), 142, 149
route-map command, 677, 683, 686
router ID. See RID
router ospf process number, 225
routers
ABR, 226, 270, 297
ASBR, 270
backbone, 270
configuring, 746–763
deleting, 458
designated routers, 189–190. See also
designated router
interfaces, 400
internal, 270, 228–233
multiple area OSPF, 269–274
OSPF
broadcast mode, 236
configuring, 224–228
Frame Relay, 236–237

NBMA, 235
options, 228–233
point-to-mulitpoint mode, 235–236
single router configuration, 237–249
troubleshooting, 249–250, 268–269
routing/switching relationships, 26
types of, 270
updating, 197
routes
aggregation, 519, 533
caches, 27
default, 14
default static, 21
dynamic, 14
entering, 19, 193–201
floating static, 22
IP, 403
learning new, 200
maps, 631
BGP, 578
characteristics of, 672
logic, 676
monitoring, 684–688
statements, 685
uses for, 671
OSPF, 196
redistributing, 626
reflectors, 597
characteristics of, 569–570
iBGP networks, 567, 569
operations, 570
propagating updates, 571–577
static, 14, 19, 628
configuring, 20
passive interfaces, 640
summarization, 387
switching, 680
routing
domains, 345
EIGRP, 479–491. See also EIGRP
function, 25
IGRP, 143
interarea, 354
loops, 139
metrics, 621–650
ODR, 23–25
policy-based, 674–680
BGP, 521–529
fast switching, 680–682
monitoring, 684–688
protocols
administration distance, 146–148
definition of, 6, 9
distance vector, 138–142
exterior, 150
IGRP, 143, 145, 784
interior routing protocols, 150
IPv6, 117
link-state, 160–164
metrics, 16
OSPF, 162, 225, 179
path selection, 148
path selection between, 146
purpose of, 9
RIPv1, 140–141
types of, 11–12, 771
versus routed protocols, 10, 14
VLSM, 56
snapshot, 95
starting, 530
switching relationships in Cisco routers, 26
tables
building, 197
creating, 460
entering routes, 19
keeping current and correct, 16–17
loop-free, 449
Metric field, 15
Network field, 14–15
Next Logical Hop field, 17
OSPF, 193–201
reducing size of, 67, 462
ToS, 341
updating, 94, 631
versus switching, 25
Routing Information Protocol version 1.
See RIPv1
RTP (reliable transport protocol), 487 rules
IP addresses, 50
policy-based routing, 523
VLSM, 57
S
scalability
EIGRP, 467
iBGP, 566–574
multiple area OSPF, 269–273, 274
networks, 90

searching neighbors, 195
security
access lists, 94
IPv6, 115
SEL field, 351
selection
BGP, 529–530
boundaries, 269
designated routers, 189–190, 231
paths, 161
topologies, 206
sending LSP, 380
set command, 631, 682
shortest path first. See SPF
show commands
show clns interface command, 412, 414
show clns neighbor command, 759
show clns neighbor detail command, 761
show clns neighbors command, 409, 411
show interface, 489
show ip bgp command, 590, 759
show ip eigrp neighbors, 492, 743
show ip eigrp topology, 492–493, 495, 742
show ip eigrp topology all-links, 492
show ip eigrp traffic, 492, 495
show ip ospf, 238, 240, 252
show ip ospf border-routers, 310
show ip ospf database, 238, 240, 252
show ip ospf interface, 238, 242–244, 252
show ip ospf neighbor, 195, 244, 246
show ip protocols, 247–248, 743
show ip route, 17, 249, 744
show ip route eigrp, 491
show isis database command, 414, 416, 761
show isis database detail command, 416
show isis spf-log command, 419, 421
show running-config command, 724
SIA (Stuck in Active), 483
single routers, 232, 237–249
site local IPv6 unicast addresses, 111
SLA (Site Level Aggregator), 113
snapshot routing, 95
SNP (sequence number PDU), 345
SNPA (subnetwork point of attachment), 346,
863
source-based transit provider selection,
674
SPF (shortest path first), 199
building routing tables, 201
routing tables, 201
split horizon rule, 139–140, 144, 151
standard areas, 272
starting routing, 530
statements
match, 631
neighbor, 235
static addressing, NAT, 107
static routes, 14, 19
configuring, 20
passive interfaces, 640
redistribution, 628, 640–641
VLSM, 56
stub areas, 272
connecting, 723–731
OSPF commands, 303
Stuck in Active (SIA), 483
subinterfaces, 206
configuring point-to-point mode, 236
OSPF, 207
subnets
IP, 41–50, 718
multiple area OSPF, 269–274
parameters, 745
subnetwork dependent layer, 346, 863
successor, feasible distance of the, 465
summarization, 64
ABRs, 718
address exhaustion, 68
advantages of, 67–68, 74
alternatives to, 71
automatic summarization, 68
command, 300
configuring, 723–731
discontiguous networks, 69–70
EIGRP, 482
IP address space, 61–64, 72
IP routes, 403
manual summarization, 69
supernets, 45, 64
support, topologies, 449
switching
fast, 680–682
function, 26
synchronization, BGP, 564–565

T
tables
neighbor
building, 453
creating, 452
routing, 13–25
building, 197
creating, 460
link-state routing protocols, 160–164
loop-free, 449
modifying routes, 193–201
updating, 462
topology
adding networks, 456
creating, 454
deleting paths/routers, 458
DUAL finite-state machines, 462
maintaining, 455
terminal access, controlling, 94
terminology
BGP, 515
EIGRP, 445, 851, 860
timers
Hello interval, 487
hold, 488
TLV (Type/Length/Value), 346, 365–367
topologies
databases, 197, 199
mapping, 701
NBMA, 235
OSPF, 202–207
selection, 206
show commands, 408
support, 449
tables, 458
adding networks, 456
creating, 454
DUAL finite-state machines, 462
maintaining, 455
routing tables, 199
ToS (type of service), 341
totally stubby areas, 273, 303
trace, 651
traffic
control, 94–95
BGP, 578–582
fast-switching, 680–682
internal routers, 224
leaking, 91
patterns, 92
transitions
EIGRP
deploying, 735–738
planning, 731–734
verifying, 738–746
IPv4 to IPv6, 116
translation
addresses, 105, 107
NAT, 105–108
triggered updates, 141–152, 161
troubleshooting, 317
EIGRP, 496
design, 467–468
scaling, 467
Integrated IS-IS, 407, 419–422
multiarea OSPF networks, 315–317
OSPF, 249–250, 268–269
tuning
attributes, 586–592
EIGRP, 487
two-way state, 196
type of service (ToS), 341
types
of areas, 272
of networks, 202–207
of routing protocols, 11–12, 771
of routes, 14
of routers, 270
U
unequal-cost load balancing, 450
unicast addresses, 111
unspecified IPv6 unicast addresses, 111
update process (Integrated IS-IS), 381–382,
810
updating
EIGRP, 448
IGRP, 143
Integrated IS-IS, 379
link-state routing protocols, 161
local network tables, 161
OSPF, 225
routers, 197, 200
routing, 16–17, 94, 462, 631

V
variable-length subnet masks. See VLSM
variance command, 485–486
verification
BGP, 535–536
attributes, 590
iBGP, 575–577
BGP configurations of attributes, 592
EIGRP
debug commands, 496
show ip eigrp neighbors, 492
show ip eigrp topology, 493
show ip eigrp traffic, 495
extended ping, 651
Integrated IS-IS operation, 407
multiarea OSPF networks, 309–314
prefix lists, 581
redistribution, 650
transitions, 738–746
virtual links, 182, 204
virtual terminal line. See vty
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 56
addresses, 60
advantages of, 57, 60
case studies, 57, 59
example of, 56
routing protocols, 56
rules of, 57
static routes, 56
vty (virtual terminal line), 94
W
WAN (wide area network)
EIGRP optional commands, 489
IP VLSM subnets, 62–63
weight attribute, 586
wildcard masks, configuring, 227

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