Planning the deployment of Terminal Services in your enterprise environment means taking
into consideration licensing, server resilience, how clients connect, and how applications are
deployed to the terminal server. In this lesson, you will learn how each of these factors will
influence the plans you develop to deploy Terminal Services in your own organization’s enterprise
After this lesson, you will be able to:
■ Plan Terminal Services infrastructure.
■ Plan Terminal Services licensing.
■ Plan Terminal Services session availability.
■ Plan client connections to Terminal Services.
Estimated lesson time: 40 minutes
Planning a Terminal Services Deployment
As an experienced enterprise administrator, you are aware of the role Terminal Services plays
on your organizational network. You understand how client computers connect to terminal
servers, how to install applications on a terminal server, and the basics of managing and configuring
an individual terminal server. In this lesson, you will go beyond the maintenance and
configuration of this technology and learn how to plan the deployment of Terminal Services
so that it best meets the needs of your organization.
The first step in planning a deployment is understanding how the following Terminal Services
components fit together:
■ Terminal server The server itself is the core component of a Terminal Services deployment.
This is the server that clients connect to so they can access their applications.
■ Terminal server farm A terminal server farm is a collection of terminal servers, used to
provide high availability and load balancing to clients on the organizational network. Client
connections to terminal server farms are mediated by Terminal Services session
directory servers. Terminal server farms are more likely to be deployed at large sites than
are individual terminal servers.
■ License servers License servers provide Terminal Services client access licenses (TS CALs)
to terminal servers on the network. Unless a license server is deployed, clients are able to
connect to Terminal Services for only a limited amount of time.
■ Terminal Services Gateway servers (TS Gateway) These servers provide access to terminal
servers to clients on untrusted networks. In enterprise networks, you can use a TS
Gateway server as a bridge between the standard internal network and a terminal server
farm on a network protected by server isolation policies.
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 335
When planning the deployment of terminal servers and terminal server farms, ensure that the
software the clients use to connect to a terminal server is installed after the Terminal Server
role is deployed. Many applications perform a check during installation to determine whether
the target of the installation is a terminal server. In some cases, different executable files will be
installed when the installation target is a terminal server as opposed to a normal, standalone
computer. Alternatively, some applications will generate a pop-up dialog box informing you
that installing the application on a terminal server is not recommended and that the vendor
does not support this deployment configuration.
Applications that are deployed on a terminal server might conflict with one another in unexpected
ways. Your Terminal Services deployment plan should include a testing period so
that you can verify that each terminal server’s application configuration does not lead to
unforeseen conflicts. If conflicts are detected, you will need to plan either to deploy conflicting
applications on separate terminal servers or to deploy applications by using Microsoft
SoftGrid Application Virtualization, which is covered in more detail in Chapter 8, “Server
and Application Virtualization.”
Terminal Services Licensing
Perhaps the most critical aspect of planning the deployment of Terminal Services in enterprise
environments is ensuring that licensing is configured appropriately. The loss of one terminal
server in an environment in which there are 100 terminal servers is a potential problem. The
loss of a license server that has an enterprise scope in an environment in which there are 100
terminal servers is a potential disaster.
All clients that connect to a terminal server require a TS CAL. This license is not included with
Windows Vista and is not a part of the standard CALs that you use when licensing a Windowsbased
server. TS CALs are managed by a Terminal Services license server. When planning a
Terminal Services deployment, answer the following questions when considering the deployment
of a Terminal Services license server:
■ What is the scope of the license server? Will it service clients in the domain or workgroup
or manage the licenses for all clients in the forest?
■ How will the license server be activated with Microsoft? How will additional licenses be
purchased and installed?
■ How many license servers are required to service the needs of your organization?
■ What type of licenses will be deployed?
License Server Scope
The license server’s discovery scope determines which terminal servers and clients can automatically
detect the license server. You configure the license server scope during the installation
of the Terminal Services License Server role service, as shown in Figure 7-1. You can
336 Chapter 7 Planning Terminal Services and Application Deployment
change the scope after it is set. The three possible discovery scopes are This Workgroup, This
Domain, and The Forest.
Figure 7-1 License server discovery scope
■ This Workgroup This scope is not available if the license server is joined to an Active
Directory domain. This discovery scope is most often installed on a computer that hosts
the Terminal Services role. Terminal servers and clients in the same workgroup can automatically
discover this license server.
■ This Domain The domain discovery scope enables terminal servers and clients that are
members of the same domain to acquire TS CALs automatically. Plan to use this scope
if TS CALs in your organization are going to be purchased and managed on a per-domain
■ The Forest The forest discovery scope enables terminal servers and clients located anywhere
in the same Active Directory forest to acquire TS CALs automatically. You should
plan to use this scope when licensing issues are handled on an organizational level
rather than at the domain level.
For example, if your organization has a single forest with a separate domain for each state
division, but all software purchasing and licensing is handled centrally, you would plan to
deploy a license server set to the forest discovery scope. This enables the people responsible
for licensing to check a central location to determine your organization’s compliance with its
Terminal Services licensing responsibilities. It saves them from having to check each state
division’s Terminal Services license server. If, however, your nationwide organization has software
and purchasing managed on a regional basis, it makes sense to deploy Terminal Services
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 337
licensing servers on the same basis. In that case, you would plan to deploy Terminal Services
license servers by using the domain discovery scope.
License Server Activation
Another important component of a Terminal Services deployment plan is choosing a license
server activation method. Before a Terminal Services license server can issue TS CALs, it must
be activated with Microsoft in a procedure similar to Windows Product Activation. During the
activation process, a Microsoft-issued digital certificate validating both server ownership and
identity is installed on the TS license server. This certificate will be used in transactions with
Microsoft for the acquisition and installation of further licenses. As shown in Figure 7-2, a
license server can be activated through three methods.
Figure 7-2 Three methods of activating a Terminal Services license server
The first method occurs transparently through a wizard, like Windows Product Activation. This
method requires the server to be able to connect to the Internet directly, using a Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL) connection, which means that it will not work with certain firewall configurations.
The second method involves navigating to a Web page. This method can be used on a computer
other than the license server and is appropriate in environments in which the network infrastructure
does not support a direct SSL connection from the internal network to an Internet
The third method involves placing a telephone call to a Microsoft clearinghouse operator. This is
a toll-free call from most locations. The method you use for activation will also validate TS CALs
that are purchased at a later date, although you can change this method by editing the Termi338
Chapter 7 Planning Terminal Services and Application Deployment
nal Services license server’s properties. If a license server is not activated, it can issue temporary
CALs only. These CALs are valid for 90 days.
When planning disaster recovery contingencies for your Terminal Services deployment, consider
that if the certificate acquired during the activation process expires or becomes corrupted,
you might need to deactivate the license server. A deactivated license server cannot issue permanent
Terminal Services Per Device CALs, although it can still issue Terminal Services Per
User CALs and temporary Terminal Services Per Device CALs. You can deactivate Terminal
Services license servers by using the automatic method or over the telephone, but you cannot
deactivate them by using a Web browser on another computer.
Terminal Services Client Access Licenses
When planning the deployment of Terminal Services, you must determine which sort of TS CAL
is most appropriate for your organization. A Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services license
server can issue two types of TS CALs: the Per Device CAL and the Per User CAL. The differences
between these licenses are as follows:
■ Terminal Services Per Device CAL The Terminal Services Per Device CAL gives a specific
computer or device the ability to connect to a terminal server. Terminal Services Per
Device CALs are automatically reclaimed by the Terminal Services licensing server after
a random period between 52 and 89 days. This will not affect clients that regularly use
these CALs because any available CAL will simply be reissued the next time the device
reconnects. In the event that you run out of available CALs, you can revoke 20 percent
of issued Terminal Services Per Device CALs for a specific operating system by using
the Terminal Services Licensing Manager console on the license server. For example,
20 percent of issued Windows Vista Terminal Services Per Device CALs can be
revoked or 20 percent of issued Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Per Device CALs can
be revoked at any one time. Revocation is not a substitute for ensuring that your organization
has purchased the requisite number of Terminal Services Per Device CALs for
■ Terminal Services Per User CAL A Terminal Services Per User CAL gives a specific user
account the ability to access any terminal server in an organization from any computer or
device. Terminal Services Per User CALs are not enforced by Terminal Services licensing,
and it is possible to have more client connections occurring in an organization than
actual Terminal Services Per User CALs installed on the license server. Failure to have
the appropriate number of Terminal Services Per User CALs is a violation of license
terms. You can determine the number of Terminal Services Per User CALs in use by
using the Terminal Services Licensing Manager console on the license server. You can
either examine the Reports node or use the console to create a Per User CAL Usage
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 339
When planning the deployment of Terminal Services license servers, remember that TS CALs
can be purchased directly from the server if the terminal server is capable of making a direct
SSL connection to the Internet. Alternatively, it is possible to use a separate computer that is
connected to the Internet to purchase TS CALs by navigating to a Web site or to use a telephone
to call the Microsoft clearinghouse directly.
MORE INFO More on TS CALs
To learn more about TS CALs, see the following TechNet Web site: http://technet2.microsoft.com
Backing Up and Restoring a License Server
To back up a Terminal Services license server, you need to back up the system state data and
the folder in which the Terminal Services licensing database is installed. You can use Review
Configuration, shown in Figure 7-3, to determine the location of the Terminal Services licensing
database. To restore the license server, rebuild the server, and reinstall the Terminal Services
Licensing Server role, restore the system state data, and then restore the Terminal Services
licensing database. When restored to a different computer, unissued licenses will not be
restored, and you will need to contact the Microsoft clearinghouse to get the licenses reissued.
Figure 7-3 Reviewing the configuration
License Server Deployment
When planning the deployment of Windows Server 2008 terminal servers in an environment
with Terminal Services running on earlier versions of a Microsoft-based server operating
system, consider that Windows Server 2003 Terminal Services license servers and
Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Terminal Services license servers cannot issue licenses to
Windows Server 2008 terminal servers. Windows Server 2008 license servers, however, support
340 Chapter 7 Planning Terminal Services and Application Deployment
the licensing requirements of earlier versions of Terminal Services. If your organization’s
Windows Server 2003 terminal servers will coexist with Windows Server 2008 terminal
servers for a time, upgrade your organization’s license servers to Windows Server 2008 so that
they can support both the new and existing terminal servers.
License Server High Availability
When planning a high availability strategy for license servers, plan the deployment of two separate
license servers per scope and install 50 percent of the TS CALs on each license server.
Because the location of license servers is published within AD DS, it is not necessary to use a
technology such as Domain Name System (DNS) round robin, Network Load Balancing, or
Failover Clustering for the deployment of license servers. Your deployment plan for license
servers should include regular backups so that if a license server does fail, the purchased
licenses can be quickly recovered and redeployed. Remember that licenses that have been
installed but not issued will be lost when a server is recovered. It is possible to recover these
licenses from the Microsoft clearinghouse, but your license deployment plan should ensure
that only the required number of licenses is purchased. You should not purchase a significant
number of extra licenses for possible future use. It is easier to purchase those licenses when
they will actually be used than worry about recovering unused licenses if the license server fails.
1. Which type of TS CAL can be revoked?
2. At what point should you install the applications that will be used by Terminal
Services clients on the terminal server?
Quick Check Answers
1. Per device client access licenses can be revoked.
2. After the Terminal Services server role has been installed on the server.
Deploying Applications Using Terminal Services Web Access
Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access) enables clients to connect to a terminal server
through a Web page link rather than by entering the terminal server address in the Remote
Desktop Connection client software. This enables you to deploy applications through the publication
of URLs, which can be distributed through Group Policy.
Unlike the similar functionality that was available in Windows Server 2003, TS Web Access in
Windows Server 2008 does not rely on an ActiveX control to provide the Remote Desktop client
connection but instead uses the Remote Desktop Client (RDC) software that is installed on
client computers. This means that to use TS Web Access, client computers need to be running
Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003 SP1, or Windows Server 2008.
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 341
A drawback to deploying TS Web Access in an enterprise environment is that TS Web Access
must be installed on the terminal server to which it is providing access. It is not possible to
connect to a second terminal server by using TS Web Access installed on the first. When considered
from the perspective of planning the deployment of applications in an enterprise environment,
it means you must distribute a different set of URLs to groups of clients as a method
of limiting the number of simultaneous connections to TS Web Access.
In general, you should not plan to use DNS round robin or Network Load Balancing with TS
Web Access. Although these technologies will balance incoming connections, they will cause
problems with reconnections, with clients occasionally reconnected to servers that are not
hosting a currently active session. An exception to this rule is TS Web Access servers located
at branch office locations. If your organization has single TS Web Access servers deployed at
each branch office location, using DNS round robin and Netmask Ordering will ensure that
branch office clients will be connected to their local TS Web Access server.
Planning the Deployment of Applications by Using RemoteApp
RemoteApp differs from a normal terminal server session in that instead of connecting to a
window that displays a remote computer’s desktop, an application being executed on the
terminal server appears as if it’s being executed on the local computer. For example, Figure
7-4 shows WordPad running both locally and as a TS RemoteApp on the same computer
running Windows Vista. The visible difference between these two is that one does not have
the Windows Vista borders and retains the Windows Server 2008 appearance.
Figure 7-4 Two different instances of WordPad
342 Chapter 7 Planning Terminal Services and Application Deployment
When planning the deployment of applications by using RemoteApp, you can use one of three
■ Create a Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) shortcut file and distribute this file to client
computers. You can do this by placing the RDP shortcut in a shared folder. This distribution
method is inefficient in enterprise environments, although it can work well in
smaller, branch office situations.
■ Create and distribute a Windows Installer package.
■ Have clients connect to the TS Web Access Web site and launch the RemoteApp application
from a link on the page. The drawbacks of TS Web Access as an application
deployment platform in enterprise environments were covered earlier in this lesson.
MORE INFO TS RemoteApp
To learn more about TS RemoteApp, see http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/library
Planning the Deployment of Terminal Server Farms
The Terminal Server Session Broker (TS Session Broker) role service simplifies the process of
adding capacity to an existing Terminal Services deployment. TS Session Broker enables load
balancing of terminal servers in a group and ensures the reconnection of clients to existing sessions
within that group. In TS Session Broker terminology, a group of terminal servers is called
The TS Session Broker service is a database that keeps track of terminal server sessions. TS
Session Broker can work with DNS round robin or with Network Load Balancing to distribute
clients to terminal servers. When configured with load balancing, the TS Session Broker service
monitors all terminal servers in the group and allocates new clients to the terminal servers
that have the largest amount of free resources. When used with DNS round robin, clients are
still distributed; the main benefit is that TS Session Broker remembers where a client is connected.
Thus, a disconnected session is reconnected appropriately rather than a new session
being created on a different terminal server. The limitation of the TS Load Balancing service is
that it can be used only with Windows Server 2008 terminal servers. Windows Server 2003
terminal servers cannot participate in a TS Session Broker farm.
When planning the deployment of TS Session Broker load balancing in your organization, you
must ensure that clients support RDP 5.2 or later. It is also necessary to ensure that each terminal
server in a particular farm has the same application configuration. Configure separate
terminal server farms when it is necessary to deploy different groups of applications. For
example, application A and application B conflict when deployed together on a single terminal
server and must be deployed on separate ones. It would be necessary to plan the deployment
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 343
of two terminal server farms, one for each application, if you need to extend client capacity by
adding additional terminal servers to support each application.
MORE INFO More on configuring TS Session Broker
To learn more about configuring TS Session Broker, see http://technet2.microsoft.com
Planning the Deployment of Terminal Services Gateway Servers
Plan the deployment of Terminal Services Gateway servers (TS Gateway) when you need to
enable Remote Desktop Protocol over HTTPS connections to RDP servers located on protected
internal networks to clients on the Internet or untrusted networks. TS Gateway servers
are not limited to screened subnets between internal networks and the Internet but can also
be deployed to enable access to servers that are the subject of IPsec isolation policies. For
example, there might be several terminal servers in your organization that run highly sensitive
accounting software. One method of making these servers secure is to apply an IPsec isolation
policy to them so that they can respond only to traffic from a very limited set of hosts. You can
then deploy a TS Gateway server on your network, applying the same IPsec isolation policy to
one of the server’s network adapters. This protects the sensitive terminal servers with multiple
layers of security. Client access to the servers is not only mediated by authorization policies on
the terminal servers running the accounting software themselves but also by the policies
applied on the TS Gateway server they must connect through to gain access to these sensitive
Planning Connection Authorization Policies
Terminal Services connection authorization policies (TS CAPs) specify which users are
allowed to connect through the TS Gateway server to resources located on a protected network.
This is usually done by specifying a local group on the TS Gateway server or a group
within AD DS. Groups can include user or computer accounts. You can also use TS CAPs to
specify whether remote clients use password or smart card authentication to access internal
network resources through the TS Gateway server. You can use TS CAPs in conjunction with
network access protection (NAP) to ensure that clients pass a system health check before
being allowed to connect to terminal servers on a protected network.
Planning Resource Authorization Policies
Terminal Services resource authorization policies (TS RAPs) determine the specific resources
on a protected network that an incoming TS Gateway client can connect to. When you create
a TS RAP, you specify a group of computers that you want to grant access to and the group of
users that you will allow this access to. For example, you could create a group of computers
344 Chapter 7 Planning Terminal Services and Application Deployment
called AccountsComputers that will be accessible to members of the Accountants user group.
To be granted access to internal resources, a remote user must meet the conditions of at least
one TS CAP and at least one TS RAP.
For example, you might create a TS CAP that specifies that the Accountants group, which has
authenticated using smart cards and whose computers have passed a health check and a TS
RAP, can access the group of terminal servers that are subject to an IPsec isolation policy. In
this situation, the accountants will be unable to make a direct connection to the terminal servers
because of the IPsec isolation policy but, assuming they meet the specified conditions, will
be able to access the sensitive application published on the terminal servers through the TS
PRACTICE Planning Terminal Services
Tailspin Toys is an Australian company headquartered in Sydney. The company uses a single
Active Directory forest. Regional branches are located in each Australian state and territory
as well as on both of New Zealand’s islands. Each regional branch has its own domain in the
Tailspin Toys forest. Responsibility for software purchasing and licensing is handled on a
branch-by-branch basis by a designated licensing officer. The licensing officer is responsible
for ensuring that his or her regional branch complies with its licensing responsibilities.
Tailspin Toys has an existing Terminal Services infrastructure, which you plan to expand as
the need for applications installed on terminal servers continues to grow. Although Tailspin
Toys has more than 10,000 employees spread across offices in Australia and New Zealand,
only a small percentage of employees ever need to access applications hosted on terminal servers;
however, they often do so from multiple computers. These employees primarily use two
applications. Extensive testing has revealed that installing application Alpha and application
Beta on the same terminal server leads to application instability. At present, terminal servers
are deployed either with application Alpha or application Beta in each regional office. There
are no plans to use Microsoft SoftGrid Application Virtualization at Tailspin Toys.
Another application that runs from Terminal Services, called application Gamma, is used with
the company’s financial database. This application is used at the Sydney office only. As a
method of protecting the company’s financial database, you are planning to move all servers
that support the database, including a terminal server that hosts application Gamma, to an
organizational unit (OU) named Secure Servers. The Secure Servers OU has a Group Policy
object (GPO) applied that enforces a certificate-based IPsec server isolation policy. This means
that the servers in this OU can communicate only with other hosts that also adhere to an
appropriate certificate-based IPsec isolation policy. This provides an added layer of security to
these servers, ensuring that the only computers that can communicate with them are authorized
to do so.
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 345
Exercise Plan Tailspin Toys Terminal Services Deployment
In this exercise, you will review the business and technical requirements to plan a Terminal
Services deployment for Tailspin Toys.
1. Twenty members of the accounting team need access to the front-end financial application
installed on the terminal server. Which steps can you take to allow this access without
giving these users access to any other server that is subject to the IPsec isolation
❑ Install a TS Gateway server in the Sydney data center that has two network adapters.
❑ Configure an appropriate IPsec isolation policy for one network adapter so that it
can communicate with the secured servers.
❑ Configure a TS RAP and a TS CAP that allow only the 20 authorized users from the
accounting team to use the TS Gateway server to connect to the terminal server
that hosts the database front-end application.
2. What plans should you make for the deployment of Terminal Services license servers
on the Tailspin Toys network to mirror the company’s current software purchasing
arrangements and to ensure that a license server is still accessible in the event of a
❑ Place two license servers in each domain in the forest. Set the scope on each license
server to Domain. License purchasing is done on a regional basis, and each domain
represents a region.
❑ Instruct the licensing officers to purchase Per User TS CALs. These are appropriate
because only a small number of users actually access Terminal Services but often
do so from multiple computers.
❑ Instruct the license administrator in each domain to install 50 percent of the
licenses on each TS license server.
3. Clients connecting to TS Alpha and TS Beta at the Sydney head office site are reporting
that performance has degraded significantly. It is likely that the number of users at the
head office that need to use application Alpha and application Beta will treble in the next
financial year. What changes can you implement to improve capacity on TS Alpha and TS
Beta to meet this projected growth in demand?
❑ Install two terminal server farms, one for TS Alpha and one for TS Beta. Add terminal
servers to each farm as required.
❑ It is necessary to use separate farms because application Alpha and application
Beta conflict when installed on the same terminal server. Each server in a terminal
server farm must have an identical application configuration.
346 Chapter 7 Planning Terminal Services and Application Deployment
■ Terminal server license servers must be activated before you can install TS CALs. The discovery
scope of a license server determines which clients and TS servers can automatically
detect the server.
■ TS Session Broker enables you to create a Terminal Services farm. TS Session Broker can
be paired with DNS round robin or Network Load Balancing and ensures that disconnected
clients are always reconnected to the correct session on the appropriate server.
■ TS Web Access allows clients to connect to a terminal server by using a browser shortcut
but still requires that the latest Remote Desktop Client software be installed.
■ TS Gateway servers can allow clients from unprotected networks to connect to terminal
servers on protected networks.
You can use the following questions to test your knowledge of the information in Lesson 1,
“Planning a Terminal Services Deployment.” The questions are also available on the companion
CD if you prefer to review them in electronic form.
Answers to these questions and explanations of why each answer choice is correct or incorrect are
located in the “Answers” section at the end of the book.
1. You are planning the deployment of Terminal Services licensing for your organization’s
Australian subsidiary. Your organization has two offices, one located in Brisbane and one
located in Adelaide. A data center in Hobart hosts infrastructure servers. Both the Brisbane
and Adelaide offices have their own Terminal Services farms. The offices are connected
by a high-speed WAN link. Each office has its own AD DS domain, and both are
a part of the same forest. The forest root domain is located in the Hobart data center and
does not contain standard user or computer accounts. For operational reasons, you
want to ensure that CALs purchased and installed at each location are allocated to
devices at that location only. Which of the following license server deployment plans
should you implement?
A. Deploy a license server to each location, and set the discovery scope of each license
server to Domain.
B. Deploy a license server to each location, and set the discovery scope of each license
server to Forest.
Lesson 1: Planning a Terminal Services Deployment 347
C. Deploy a license server to the Hobart data center, and set the discovery scope of
the license server to Forest.
D. Deploy a license server to the Hobart data center, and set the discovery scope of
the license server to Domain.
2. You are planning the deployment of Terminal Services license servers, using the Domain
scope for each of the domains in your organization’s Active Directory forest. Which of
the following steps do you need to take prior to installing Per User TS CALs on a TS
A. Set the forest functional level to Windows Server 2008.
B. Set the domain functional level of each domain in the forest to Windows Server
C. Activate the license server.
D. Install Internet Information Services (IIS).
3. The organization that you work for is going through a period of growth. Users access
business applications from client terminals. You are concerned that the growth in users
will outstrip the processing capacity of the host terminal server. Which of the following
solutions enables you to increase the client capacity without requiring client reconfiguration?
A. Use Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) to ensure that all users are able
to access resources equally.
B. Install Hyper-V on a computer running Windows Server 2008 Enterprise and add
virtualized servers as required.
C. Add terminal servers as required and reconfigure clients to use specific ones.
D. Create a terminal server farm and add terminal servers as required.
4. You need to ensure that clients connecting to your terminal servers have passed a health
check. Which of the following deployments should you implement?
A. Install OneCare Live on the terminal servers.
B. Implement TS Session Broker.
C. Mediate access using a TS Gateway server.
D. Mediate access using Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server 2006.