this lesson, you will learn how to design an operating system virtualization strategy. This
includes learning how to assess which existing server deployments make good candidates for
virtualization, learning how to plan the migration of servers from traditional hardware-based
installations to virtual hosts, and learning the most effective locations in an existing network
infrastructure to deploy servers that host virtual machines (VMs). This lesson not only
explains Hyper-V but also examines Virtual Server 2005 R2 and System Center Virtual
Machine Manager 2007. To effectively design an operating system virtualization strategy, you
need to understand how these separate components can be integrated to meet your organization’s
After this lesson, you will be able to:
■ Understand the differences between operating system virtualization technologies.
■ Understand the benefits of deploying System Center Virtual Machine Manager
■ Design a server consolidation strategy.
■ Design a virtual host and virtual machine deployment strategy.
Estimated lesson time: 40 minutes
Every year the hardware that vendors make available becomes more powerful. Increasingly
powerful hardware changes the way that enterprise administrators plan the deployment of
server resources. Whereas, in the past, server utilization patterns and performance meant that
only a single server role or application could be deployed on computer hardware, today’s server
hardware can cope with a much higher workload. This means that fewer servers are required to
do the same amount of work. Virtualization allows you to fully utilize the increased computing
power made available by modern hardware without worrying about the conflicts that might
occur if you cohosted important applications and server roles on a single instance of Windows
Server 2008. Virtualization provides the following benefits over traditional installations:
■ More efficient use of hardware resources Services such as Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS), although vital to network infrastructure,
are unlikely to push the limits of your server’s processor and RAM. Although
it is possible to co-locate the DNS and DHCP roles on the one Windows Server 2008
computer, the strategy of separating network roles onto separate partitions allows you to
relocate those partitions to other host computers if the circumstances and usage of those
■ Improved availability Consolidating these services onto a single hardware platform can
reduce costs and maintenance expenses. Although moving from many platforms to one
might look like it would lead to a single point of failure, implementing redundancy technologies
(clustering and hot-swappable hardware such as processors, RAM, power supplies,
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 363
and hard disk drives) provides a greater level of reliability for lower cost. Consider the
following situation: four Windows Server 2008 computers are each running a separate
application provided to users on your network. If a hardware component fails on one of
those servers, the application that the server provides to users of the network is unavailable
until the component is replaced. Building one server with redundant components
is cheaper than building four servers with redundant components. If a component fails,
the built-in redundancy allows all server roles to remain available.
■ Servers need to be only intermittently available Some servers need to be available only
intermittently. For example, the best practice with a root CA is to use subordinate CAs to
issue certificates and to keep the root CA offline. With virtualization, you could keep the
entire virtualized root CA server on a removable USB hard disk drive in a safe, only turning
it on when necessary and thereby ensuring the security of your certificate infrastructure.
Virtualization frees up existing hardware that is rarely used—or makes it unnecessary to
■ Role sandboxing Sandboxing is a term used to describe the partitioning of server
resources so that an application or service does not influence other components on the
server. Without sandboxing, a failing server application or role has the capacity to bring
down an entire server. Just as Web application pools in Internet Information Services
(IIS) sandbox Web applications so that the failure of one application will not bring all of
them down, running server applications and roles in their own separate virtualized environment
ensures that one errant process does not bring down everything else.
■ Greater capacity Adding significant hardware capacity to a single server is cheaper than
adding incremental hardware upgrades to many servers. You can increase capacity by
adding processors and RAM to the host server and then allocating those resources to a
virtual server as the need arises.
■ Greater portability After a server has been virtualized, moving it to another host if the
original host’s resources become overwhelmed is relatively simple. For example, suppose
that the disks on a Windows Server 2008 Enterprise computer hosting 10 virtualized
servers are reaching their input/output (I/O) capacity. Moving some of the
virtualized servers to another host is simpler than migrating or upgrading a server. Tools
such as System Center Virtual Machine Manager, covered later in the chapter, make the
process even simpler.
■ Easier backup and restore Tools such as volume shadow copy allow you to back up an
entire server’s image while the server is still operational. If a host computer fails, the
images can be rapidly restored on another host computer. Rather than backing up individual
files and folders, you can back up the entire virtualized computer in one operation.
System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 2007 allows you to move VMs
back and forth to the Storage Area Network (SAN) and even migrate VMs between host
computers. SCVMM 2007 is covered in more detail later in the lesson.
364 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
Virtual Server 2005 R2
Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 is a product that you can download and install for free from
Microsoft’s Web site. Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 allows you to host and manage VM instances on
a 32-bit version of Windows Server 2008. You can also install Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 on the
32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003 SP1/R2. It is also possible to install Virtual
Server 2005 R2 SP1 on Windows Small Business Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional,
though you should never use Windows XP Professional as a virtual host for virtualized servers
that are used in a production environment. Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 cannot be installed on
a Windows Server 2008 computer that has been installed using the Server Core option.
MORE INFO Downloading Virtual Server 2005 R2
You can download a free copy of Virtual Server 2005 R2 by accessing the following address on
Microsoft’s Web site: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserversystem/virtualserver/downloads.aspx.
When planning an operating system virtualization strategy, you should consider Virtual
Server 2005 R2 SP1 when the computer that you plan to use as a virtual host has a 32-bit, as
opposed to a 64-bit, processor. This is because Hyper-V, which is covered later in this lesson,
is a Windows Server 2008 feature that is available only on 64-bit versions of Windows Server
2008. For example, say that your organization has a computer with Windows Server 2003
Enterprise installed. The computer has eight processors and 64 GB of RAM, but the processors
on the computer are 32-bit rather than 64-bit. Computers with large amounts of RAM
make excellent VM hosts, but because the processors on the computer have a 32-bit rather
than a 64-bit architecture, it is impossible to install the 64-bit version of Windows Server 2008
on this computer and impossible to use Hyper-V as a VM host. From the planning perspective,
you can still install Windows Server 2008 on this computer and use it as a VM host; it is just
that the host platform will be Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 rather than Hyper-V.
Alternatively, you could have a similarly powerful computer that has the 64-bit version of
Windows Server 2003 R2 installed. Your organization might not be ready to upgrade the operating
system of this computer to Windows Server 2008, but you might want to use the computer
as a VM host. Because Hyper-V can be deployed only on Windows Server 2008 x64, you
will need to include Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 in your operating system virtualization plans
until you can upgrade the computer operating system to Windows Server 2008 x64.
Although you can use Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 as a key component in an operating system
virtualization strategy, you must remember the following limitations when planning virtual
■ Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 cannot host x64 bit VMs—even if the platform that Virtual
Server 2005 R2 SP1 is installed on is a 64-bit operating system.
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 365
■ Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 does not support symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) in the
■ Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 supports a maximum of four virtual network adapters.
■ Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 supports a maximum of 64 concurrent VMs.
MORE INFO More on Virtual Server 2005
To learn more about Virtual Server 2005, consult the following page on Microsoft’s Web site:
Hyper-V is a Windows Server 2008 feature that allows you to run virtualized computers under
x64 versions of Windows Server 2008. Hyper-V is a hypervisor-based technology. A hypervisor
is a software layer between the hardware and the operating system that allows multiple operating
systems to run on a host computer at the same time. Hyper-V has many similarities to Virtual
Server 2005 R2 in terms of functionality, although, unlike Virtual Server 2005 R2, Hyper-V is
built directly into the operating system as a role and does not sit above the operating system
as an application. Apart from being a feature included with the operating system, Hyper-V has
the following differences from Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1:
■ Hyper-V allows you to run 64-bit VM guests. Hyper-V can concurrently host 32-bit and
64-bit VM guests.
■ Hyper-V supports SMP in the VM environment.
■ Hyper-V can host as many concurrent VMs as the hardware supports.
■ Hyper-V can be configured as a part of a failover cluster, so that a VM fails over across the
network to a server running Hyper-V in a recovery site.
■ Hyper-V can be used on a Windows Server 2008 computer installed using the Server
Core option. You can manage Hyper-V on a Server Core computer using the WMI interface
or a remote session using the Hyper-V manager console.
■ Hyper-V guests can have a maximum of four virtual SCSI controllers per VM.
■ Hyper-V guests can have a maximum of eight virtual network adapters per VM.
■ The Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2008 include licenses to run
virtualized instances of the operating system using Hyper-V.
Creating Virtual Machines
Creating a VM on a Hyper-V host is relatively simple and involves running the New Virtual
Machine Wizard from the Virtualization Management console. To create the virtual machine,
perform the following steps:
366 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
1. Specify a name and location for the VM. Placing a VM on a RAID-5 volume—or, even better,
a RAID 0+1 or RAID 1+0 volume—ensures redundancy. You should avoid placing
VMs on the same volume as the host operating system. The name of the VM does not
need to be simply the computer’s name but can include other information about the
2. Specify memory allocation. The maximum amount of memory depends on the amount
of RAM installed on the host computer. Remember that each active VM must be allocated
RAM and that the total amount of allocated RAM for all active VMs and the host
operating system cannot exceed the amount installed on the host computer.
3. Specify networking settings. Specify which of the network cards installed on the host
will be used by the VM. Where you expect high network throughput, you might add an
extra network card and allocate it solely to a hosted VM.
4. Specify a virtual hard disk. VMs use flat files to store hard disk data. Hyper-V mounts
these files, and they appear to the VM as a normal hard disk drive that can even be formatted
and partitioned. When creating a virtual hard disk, you should specify enough
space for the operating system to grow, but do not allocate all available space if you
intend to add other VMs later.
5. Specify operating system installation settings. In the final stage of setting up a VM, you
specify how you will install the operating system: from an image file, such as an .ISO file;
from optical media, such as a DVD-ROM; or from a network-based installation server,
such as Windows Deployment Services (WDS).
From this point you can turn on the VM and then begin the installation process using the
method that you selected in step 5.
Managing Virtualized Servers
You manage Hyper-V through the Hyper-V Manager console, shown in Figure 8-1. You can use
this console to manage virtual networks, edit and inspect disks, take snapshots, revert to snapshots,
and delete snapshots, as well as to edit the settings for individual VMs. You can also
mount virtual hard disks as volumes on the host server should the need arise.
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 367
Figure 8-1 Virtualization Management console
Snapshots are similar to a point-in-time backup of a virtualized machine. The great benefit of
snapshots is that they allow you to roll back to an earlier instance of an operating system far
more quickly than any other technology would. For example, assume that your organization
hosts its intranet Web server as a VM under Hyper-V. A snapshot of the intranet Web server is
taken every day. Because of an unforeseen problem with the custom content management system,
the most recent set of updates to the intranet site have wiped the server completely. In the
past, as an administrator, you would have to go to your backup tapes and restore the files. With
Hyper-V, you can just roll back to the previous snapshot and everything will be in the state it
was when the snapshot was taken.
All operating systems that run in a virtualized environment need to be licensed. Products such
as Windows Server 2008 Enterprise and Windows Server 2008 Datacenter allow a certain
number of virtual instances to be run without incurring extra license costs because the
licenses for these editions include the virtualized component. The applications that run on the
virtualized servers also need licenses. As with all licensing queries, in more complicated situations
you should check with your Microsoft representative if you are unsure whether you are
368 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
MORE INFO More on licensing virtual machines
To learn more about what you need to consider when licensing a VM, see http://download
Modifying Hardware Settings
You can edit VM settings. This allows you to add resources like virtual hard disks and more
RAM and to configure other settings, such as the Snapshot File Location. Figure 8-2 shows the
Integration Services for a specific VM. Integration Services allow information and data to be
directly exchanged between host and VM. To function, these services must be installed on the
guest operating system. This task is performed after the guest operating system is set up. You
can edit some settings, such as the optical drive settings, while the VM is running. Other settings,
such as assigning and removing processors from a VM, require you to turn off the VM.
Figure 8-2 Modifying the settings of a VM
Not only can you assign processors to VMs, but you can also limit the amount of processor
usage by a particular VM. You do this with the Virtual Processor settings shown in Figure 8-3.
This way you can stop one VM that has relatively high processing needs from monopolizing
the host server’s hardware. You can also use the Virtual Processor settings to assign a relative
weight to a hosted VM. Rather than specifying a percentage of system resources to which the
VM is entitled, you can use ratios to weight VM access to system resources. The benefit of using
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 369
relative weight is that you do not have to recalculate percentages each time you add or remove
VMs from a host. You simply add the new host, assign a relative weight, and let Hyper-V work
out the specific percentage of system resources that the VM is entitled to.
Figure 8-3 VM processor allocation
1. On which versions of Windows Server 2008 can you install the Hyper-V role?
2. From the perspective of available host computer hardware, in which cases should
you plan the deployment of Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 over the deployment of
Quick Check Answers
1. You can install the Hyper-V role on the 64-bit editions of the Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2008 in both the standard and servercore
2. You should plan the deployment of Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 when your host
computer hardware has only a 32-bit, rather than a 64-bit, processor.
370 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
Candidates for Virtualization
When you are considering server deployment options, it will be advantageous in some situations
to deploy a virtualized server rather than the real thing. One factor is cost: a Windows
Server 2008 Enterprise license includes the licenses for four hosted virtual instances.
Although you need to consider many other costs when making a comparison, from a licensing
perspective, one Windows Server 2008 Enterprise license will cost less than five standard
licenses. Also remember that server-grade hardware will always cost significantly more than a
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise license, especially if your organization has a licensing agreement
Although each situation will be different, in certain archetypical situations, you would plan a
virtualized server rather than a traditional installation, including the following:
■ You want to use WDS at a branch office location for a rollout that will last several days,
but you do not have the resources to deploy extra hardware to that location. In this case,
you could virtualize a WDS server and turn on the VM only when it was needed. If more
operating systems need to be rolled out later, the VM could be turned on.
■ You have two applications hosted on the same server that conflict with each other.
Because custom applications do not always work together well, sometimes you need to
place each application in its own VM. Applications hosted on separate computers are
unlikely to conflict with each other! Another solution is to virtualize the application
itself. Virtualizing applications is covered later in this lesson.
■ You are working with developers who need to test an application. If you have worked as
a systems administrator in an environment with developers, you know that some
projects are not stable until they are nearly complete, and, until that time, they have a
nasty habit of crashing the server. Giving developers their own VM to work with allows
them to crash a server as often as they like without your worrying about the impact on
anyone outside the development group.
Some server deployments make poor candidates for virtualization. Servers that have high I/O
requirements or high CPU requirements make poor candidates. A server that monopolizes
CPU, memory, and disk resources on a single computer will require the same level of resources
when virtualized, and a traditional server installation will provide better performance than
running that same server virtualized on the same hardware. In general, you are reasonably safe
in deciding to deploy virtual servers if the server does not have a large performance footprint.
When a server is expected to have a significant performance footprint, you will need to
develop further metrics to decide whether virtualization offers any advantage.
NOTE Number of licenses
Remember that Windows Server 2008 Datacenter (x64) has unlimited licenses for virtual hosts and
that Windows Server 2008 Enterprise (x64) has only four.
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 371
Planning for Server Consolidation
When you plan the deployment of Windows Server 2008 at a particular site that has an existing
Windows server infrastructure, you will be making an assessment about which of the existing
servers can be virtualized, which need to be migrated, and which need to be upgraded. If
you have deployed System Center Operations Manager in your environment, you can use the
product to generate a Virtualization Candidates report, which will give you a list of servers in
your environment that make excellent candidates for virtualization given their current usage
When you have determined the need to virtualize a server, the next step is to move that server
from its existing hardware to a virtualized partition running under Windows Server 2008. You
can use two tools to virtualize a server installed on traditional hardware: the Virtual Server
Migration Toolkit (VSMT) and SCVMM. Both tools are compatible not only with Hyper-V but
also with Virtual Server 2005 R2.
Virtual Server Migration Toolkit
VSMT is the best tool to use when you have a small number of servers that need to be virtualized.
The tool is command line–based and uses Extensible Markup Language (XML) files to
store configuration data that is used during the migration process. You cannot use the VSMT
tool to manage virtualized servers—it is purely a tool for migrating existing servers to a virtualized
Unlike the SCVMM 2007 migration tools, it is not possible to use the VSMT to perform migrations
without downtime. The VSMT was primarily designed to migrate servers to the Virtual
Server 2005 platform. It is because Virtual Server 2005 virtualized operating systems are compatible
with Hyper-V that you can use this tool to perform migrations to Windows Server 2008
MORE INFO More on the Virtual Server Migration Toolkit
To find out more about how you can use VSMT to virtualize servers, see the following TechNet article:
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2007
You should plan to use SCVMM 2007 when you have a large number of VMs to manage in a
single location. SCVMM requires a significant infrastructure investment and is primarily
designed to manage enterprise-sized virtual server deployments rather than to be something
that you would plan to use to migrate a couple of branch office servers into a virtual environment.
If you are planning to virtualize a large number of servers, you will find the extra functionality
of SCVMM 2007 manager valuable. Unlike VSMT, SCVMM is fully integrated with
372 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
Windows PowerShell, giving you more flexibility in migrating servers from physical to virtualized
You should note that deployment of SCVMM requires a connection to a SQL Server database.
The Express Edition of SQL Server 2005 SP2 is included with the SCVMM 2007 installation
files, or you can use an existing SQL Server 2005 SP2 or SQL Server 2008 instance. SCVMM
2007 uses this database to store VM configuration information.
In addition to virtualizing traditional server installations, you can use SCVMM to do the following:
■ Monitor all of the virtualized servers in your environment. A single SCVMM server can
be used to manage up to 8,000 VMs.
■ Monitor all Hyper-V hosts in your environment. A single SCVMM server can be used to
manage up to 400 Hyper-V or Virtual Server 2005 R2 host computers.
■ When connected to a Fibre Channel SAN environment, move virtualized servers from
one Hyper-V host to another.
■ Move virtualized servers to and from libraries.
■ Delegate permissions so that users with nonadministrative privileges are able to create
and manage their own VMs.
■ Migrate servers from physical to virtual without any downtime.
SCVMM 2007 includes capacity planning technology that allows you to assign VMs to the virtual
hosts in your environment that have the appropriate available resources to support them
based on VM performance data. For example, if you have 10 Windows Server 2008 computers
that each host multiple VMs, the capacity planning technology in SCVMM 2007 can make recommendations
about where each VM should be deployed based on performance data observations.
SCVMM 2007 increases your operating system virtualization planning options because it
includes tools that allow you to make the most efficient use of your VM and virtual host infrastructure.
As Figure 8-4 shows, the capacity planning tools available in SCVMM 2007 can be
heavily customized, allowing administrators to prioritize the importance of specific resources.
For example, you can configure the capacity planning tools to prioritize servers that have available
memory over those that have lower CPU utilization.
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 373
Figure 8-4 Configuring capacity planning
Components of a System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2007
An SCVMM 2007 deployment consists of several components that can all be installed on the
one server or that can be installed on several servers throughout the enterprise. SCVMM 2007
components include the following:
■ SCVMM server This is the server on which the SCVMM software is installed. You
should install this component first. Except under unusual circumstances, there is usually
only one SCVMM server in an environment, so you should plan redundancy using
failover clustering rather than the deployment of multiple servers. Although it is possible
to deploy multiple SCVMM servers in a forest, each SCVMM server requires a separate
SCVMM database, although these databases can be hosted on the same SQL Server
instance. An SCVMM server cannot be installed in a forest that has a disjointed DNS
namespace (multiple separate domain trees within the same forest).
■ SCVMM agent This component is installed on a VM host running Virtual Server 2005
R2 or Hyper-V and SCVMM library servers. To be automatically managed, all VM hosts
must be members of the same forest as the SCVMM server. It is possible to install the
SCVMM agent on a computer that is not a member of the same forest and configure a
connection manually to the SCVMM server. This is usually done when a virtual host is
deployed on a perimeter network. A single SCVMM server can manage a maximum of 400
servers running Hyper-V or Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1, or both. A Hyper-V or Virtual
Server 2005 R2 SP1 host can be managed only by a single SCVMM server.
374 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
MORE INFO Installing SCVMM agent locally
For more information about installing the SCVMM agent locally, consult the following Tech-
Net document: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb740757.aspx.
■ SCVMM database The SCVMM database can be hosted either on SQL Server 2005 or
SQL Server 2008. If no SQL Server instance is specified, the setup routine installs SQL
Server Express on the local SCVMM server. The drawback of using SQL Server Express
is that the advanced reporting functionality will be unavailable. In addition to using SQL
Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008, if you plan to use the advanced reporting functionality
of the product, you must also deploy System Center Operations Manager 2007 in the
same forest. If the SCVMM database is remote from the SCVMM server, you should
secure the connection between the two servers using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
MORE INFO SCVMM and a remote instance of SQL Server
For more information on the specific steps involved in configuring a remote instance of SQL
Server to support SCVMM 2007, consult the following TechNet document: http://technet
■ SCVMM Administrator console Like all management consoles, the SCVMM administrator
console can be installed on an administrator workstation to manage SCVMM
remotely or used to directly manage the server on which SCVMM components are
■ SCVMM self-service portal This portal allows users who are not SCVMM administrators
to manage VMs to which they have been delegated permissions. The portal is Webbased
and should be installed on a server that has IIS 6.0 or later and is a member of the
same forest as the SCVMM server.
■ SCVMM library server The library is a catalog of resources that are used to create VMs
using SCVMM. These resources include ISO images, scripts, hardware profiles, VM templates,
virtual hard disks, and stored VMs. A VM template includes a guest operating system
profile, a hardware profile, and virtual hard disks. These resources are hosted on a set
of shares that are managed through the SCVMM console. The library can be stored across
multiple physical servers in an enterprise deployment. If the SCVMM library is not
deployed on the VM host server, the network connection between a VM host server and
the library it uses should be as fast as possible. A default library share called VMMLibrary
is created on the SCVMM server during the installation process unless an administrator
determines otherwise. An SCVMM Library server can only be managed by one SCVMM
server. You cannot directly share resources between different SCVMM environments.
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 375
SCVMM 2007 in the Branch Office
SCVMM 2007 is usually deployed in a datacenter environment, with all components, including
VM hosts, located at the same site. If SCVMM 2007 is going to be used to create, run, and
manage VMs at branch and satellite offices, you should deploy a VMM library server and a VM
host at the branch office site. This will allow you to deploy new VMs directly from the library
to the VM hosts without having to transfer gigabytes of data across the organizational wide
area network (WAN) link.
In branch office deployments, the SCVMM library is usually deployed on the same server that
functions as the VM host. This allows for rapid deployments because the files used to build
new VMs do not need to be copied across the network. The drawback of this type of deployment
is that it requires a significant amount of hard disk drive space to store both the library
data and the deployed VMs.
MORE INFO More on planning SCVMM 2007 deployment
For more information on planning an SCVMM 2007 deployment, consult the following TechNet
Web page: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb963710.aspx.
MORE INFO SCVMM 2007 webcasts
To learn more about using SCVMM 2007, access the following TechNet webcasts: SCVMM 2007
Overview at http://msevents.microsoft.com/cui/WebCastEventDetails.aspx?culture=en-US&EventID
=1032324658&CountryCode=US and Managing Virtualization at http://msevents.microsoft.com
PRACTICE Designing Virtual Server Deployment
Fabrikam, Ltd, is a large Australian company that has three sites spread across the state of Victoria.
The headquarters site is in the city of Warrandyte with branch offices in Yarragon and
Traralgon. As a part of a shareholder initiative to reduce Fabrikam’s fossil fuel usage, the company
has been looking for ways to lessen its consumption of electricity. An audit of the company’s
computer hardware resources has found that it has large numbers of servers deployed
throughout all locations, the resources of which are barely being used. Reducing the number
of physical servers will reduce the company’s use of electricity and also shrink the company’s
carbon footprint, thus enhancing shareholder value.
Both the Traralgon and Yarragon sites have a large number of Windows Server 2003 computers.
All of these computers were originally upgraded from Windows 2000 Server and, hardware
that was purchased in early 2001, and are therefore underpowered compared with what
is available today. Management believes that the amount of hardware located at the Traralgon
and Yarragon sites can be significantly rationalized.
376 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
Although operating system virtualization is not being used at the branch office sites, an administrator
who has since left the organization realized significant efficiencies by virtualizing 200
existing servers in the Warrandyte datacenter and retiring ageing hardware. These 200 Windows
Server 2003 VMs are currently hosted on 10 Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition computers.
The hosting platform is Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1. Part of the virtualization plan will
involve moving these VMs so that they are hosted under Hyper-V rather than Virtual Server
2005 R2 SP1. The previous administrator determined that all 200 Windows Server 2003 VMs
could be hosted on two computers running Windows Server 2008 Datacenter if the computers
were provisioned with appropriate hardware. The administrator left before this project
moved beyond the early planning stage, and you will need to further develop the plan.
Exercise Planning an Operating System Virtualization Strategy for Fabrikam
In this exercise, you will review the business and technical requirements to plan a virtualized
application deployment for Fabrikam, Ltd.
1. What strategy should you use to determine which servers at Fabrikam will make good
virtualization candidates and what steps should be taken to migrate these servers?
❑ Plan the deployment of System Center Operations Manager 2007 in the Fabrikam
forest. Generate a Virtualization Candidates report.
❑ Deploy SCVMM 2007 and use the product to perform in-place virtualizations of
existing servers. For you to do this, each candidate must be a member of the same
forest or have the SCVMM 2007 agent installed.
2. What plans should you make to ensure that it is possible to rapidly deploy virtualized
servers at the Traralgon and Yarragon branch offices?
❑ It will be necessary to deploy an SCVMM 2007 library at both the Traralgon and
Yarragon branch office sites.
❑ It will be necessary to configure distributed file system (DFS) to replicate updated
library data to the library site over the WAN links during off-peak period.
3. What plans should you make to migrate the VMs hosted at the Warrandyte datacenter
from Virtual Server 2005 R2 to Hyper-V?
❑ Deploy a high-speed SAN at the Warrandyte datacenter.
❑ Deploy a Windows Server 2008 Datacenter host at the Warrandyte datacenter.
❑ Use SCVMM 2007 to migrate the VMs hosted on Virtual Server 2005 R2 to Hyper-V,
transferring them across the SAN.
■ Hyper-V is an add-on role for 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 that you can use
to host and manage virtualized operating systems.
Lesson 1: Planning Operating System Virtualization 377
■ Snapshots allow the state of a server to be taken at a point in time, such as prior to the
deployment of an update, so that the server can be rolled back to that state in the future.
■ The best candidates for virtualization are servers that do not intensively use processor,
RAM, and disk resources.
■ The Virtual Server Migration Toolkit (VSMT) provides tools you can use to virtualize
existing servers. The toolkit uses XML-based files to assist in the transition from a traditional
to a virtualized installation. Use this option if you have a small number of existing
servers to virtualize.
■ System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) allows you to manage many virtual
machines (VMs) at once. It includes tools that allow you to move VMs between hosts,
allow nonprivileged users to create and manage their own VMs, and perform bulk virtualizations
of servers installed on traditional hardware. Use SCVMM only with large VM
You can use the following questions to test your knowledge of the information in Lesson 1,
“Planning Operating System Virtualization.” The questions are also available on the companion
CD if you prefer to review them in electronic form.
Answers to these questions and explanations of why each answer choice is correct or incorrect are
located in the “Answers” section at the end of the book.
1. Which of the following scenarios provides the most compelling case for the planned
deployment of SCVMM 2007?
A. You need to virtualize four Windows 2000 Server computers.
B. You want to be able to move virtualized servers between hosts on your Fibre Channel
C. You are responsible for managing 10 virtualized Windows Server 2008 servers at
your head office location.
D. You need to automate the deployment of five Windows Server 2008 Enterprise
computers with the Hyper-V role installed.
2. On which of the following platforms can you install Hyper-V?
A. A Server Core installation of the x64 version of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise
B. A Server Core installation of the x86 version of Windows Server 2008 Datacenter
C. A standard installation of the x86 version of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise
D. A standard installation of the x86 version of Windows Server 2008 Datacenter
378 Chapter 8 Server and Application Virtualization
3. Which of the following are the management limits of a single-server SCVMM 2007
deployment? (Choose two. Each correct answer forms a complete solution.)
A. 400 virtual machine hosts
B. 800 virtual machine hosts
C. 1200 virtual machine hosts
D. 16000 virtual machines
E. 8000 virtual machines
4. Which of the following SCVMM 2007 components should you plan to install at branch
office locations where you will need to be able to rapidly deploy new VMs to virtual hosts
at those sites?
A. SCVMM database
B. SCVMM self-service portal
C. SCVMM server
D. SCVMM library server
5. You are planning the deployment of SCVMM 2007 to manage several hundred VMs
hosted by Windows Server 2008 computers with Hyper-V. Approximately 30 VMs are
deployed off two Windows Server 2008 computers on your organization’s screened-subnet.
Which of the following plans should you make to ensure that all VMs hosted in your
environment can be managed using SCVMM 2007 without installing unnecessary
instances of the product?
A. Install the VMM agent manually on the two Windows Server 2008 host computers
and configure the internal firewall appropriately.
B. Install the VMM agent manually on the 30 VMs and configure the internal firewall
C. Install Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services and configure the internal
D. Install SCVMM 2007 on each Windows Server 2008 host computer and configure
the internal firewall appropriately.