Islamic medicine (also known as yunani medicine) did not disappear at the end of the Middle Ages but continued to develop and spread to other areas. During the nineteenth century, traditional practitioners came under increasing pressure from competing Western-style doctors and
government ofﬁcials. In 1838, the Ottoman Sultan, Muhammad II, estab- lished the ﬁrst Western-style medical school and hospital in Istanbul and staffed it with French doctors. The Sultan asserted that traditional Islamic medicine had become stagnant and sterile. Many other Muslim countries eventually followed this example and tried to ban the practice of traditional medicine.
Even where twentieth century laws regulating medical practice drove traditional practitioners underground, diligent explorers could still ﬁnd them. For example, in French-ruled Algeria, traditional healers and their patients were reluctant to talk to outsiders because it was illegal for people without the proper French qualiﬁcations to perform surgery. Nevertheless, yunani doctors performed eye surgery, tooth extractions, cupping, cautery, bloodletting, and assisted in difﬁcult births. Although anesthetic drugs were available, most traditional practitioners did not use them before surgery. Some healers claimed that their methods were so gentle that the patient did not suffer, but strong assistants were invariably needed to restrain the patient. Many people treated themselves with yunani drugs and cauterization in order to avoid the costs of seeing a doctor and because of their faith in such remedies.
Under British rule of the Indian subcontinent, both Muslim and Hindu traditional systems survived. In the 1960s, the Pakistani govern- ment ordered the registration, licensing, and utilization of hakims (traditional scholar-physicians), because Western medicine was too expensive and rarely available to the rural population. Western-style doctors strenuously objected to this ofﬁcial recognition of their rivals. With ofﬁcial recognition by the governments of Pakistan and India and regulations administered through the Ministries of Health, male and female yunani practitioners, known as tabibs and tabibas, respec- tively, ﬂourished in urban and rural settings. Many practitioners learned the art as apprentices, but others enrolled in yunani medical colleges where the curriculum includes the Canon of Avicenna and the standard components of modern medicine. Yunani doctors still diagnose illness by inspecting the pulse, urine, stools, and tongue and prescribe traditional drugs and diets. Scientiﬁc analyses of yunani remedies have conﬁrmed the value of many medicinal plants, but hundreds of tra- ditional drugs have not been investigated. In general, however, modern Muslim societies have not succeeded in establishing the complete accul- turation of modern medicine into Islam, despite the fact that medieval Islam successfully assimilated Greek, Persian, and Indian medical tra- ditions. Despite the explosive revival of Islamic fundamentalism in the 1980s, India and Pakistan appear to be the only nations where a serious effort is being made to incorporate Greco-Islamic medical traditions into modern health care planning.
Aberth, J. (2000). From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague, and Death in the Later Middle Ages. New York: Routledge.
Albucasis (1973). Albucasis on Surgery and Instruments. Edited by M. S. Spink and G. L. Lewis. Berkeley, CA: University California Press.
Arnaldez, R. (2000). Averroes: A Rationalist in Islam (Trans. by D. Streight).
Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Van Arsdall, A., trans. (2002). Medieval Herbal Remedies: The Old English Herbarium and Anglo-Saxon Medicine. New York: Routledge.
Avicenna (1930). A Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna Incorporat- ing a Translation of the First Book (Trans. by O. C. Gruner). London: Luzac.
Avicenna (1974). The Life of Ibn Sina (Trans. by W. E. Gohlman). New York: State University of New York Press.
Berger, M. (1999). Hildegard of Bingen: On Natural Philosophy and Medicine: Selections from Cause et Cure. Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer.
Boeckl, C. M. (2000). Images of Plague and Pestilence: Iconography and Ico- nology. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press.
Brody, S. N. (1974). The Disease of the Soul; Leprosy in Medieval Literature.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Brown, P. (1980). The Cult of the Saints. Its Rise and Function in Latin Chris- tianity. Chicago, IL: University Chicago Press.
Bullough, V. L. (2004). Universities, Medicine and Science in the Medieval West. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Cadden, J. (1993). Meanings of Sex Differences in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cameron, M. L. (1993). Anglo-Saxon Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carmichael, A. G. (1986). Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cockayne, T. O. (1864–1866). Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. The History of Science Before the Norman Conquest. Collected and edited by the Rev. T. O. Cockayne (1807–1873). 3 Volumes. Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 2001.
Cohn, S. K., Jr. (2002). The Black Death Transformed. Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fakhry, M. (2001). Averroes (Ibn Rushd): His Life, Works and Inﬂuence. Great Islamic Thinkers Series. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
French, R., Arrizabalaga, J., Cunningham, A., and Garc´ıa-Ballester, L., eds. (1998). Medicine from the Black Death to the French Disease. Brookﬁeld, VT: Ashgate.
Garc´ıa-Ballester, L. (2001). Medicine in a Multicultural Society: Christian, Jewish and Muslim Practitioners in the Spanish Kingdoms, 1222–1610. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Garc´ıa-Ballester, L. (2002). Galen and Galenism: Theory and Medical Practice from Antiquity to the European Renaissance. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Garc´ıa-Ballester, L., French, R., Arrizabalaga, J., and Cunningham, A., eds. (1994). Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Getz, F. (1998). In: Medicine in the English Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Prin- ceton University Press.
Gottfried, R. S. (1986). Doctors and Medicine in Medieval England, 1340–1530.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Green, M. H. (2002). The Trotula: An English Translation of the Medieval Compendium of Women’s Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Green, M. H. (2000). Women’s Healthcare in the Medieval West: Texts and Contexts. Burlington, VT: Ashgate/Variorum.
Herlihy, D. (1997). The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cam- bridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Khan, M. S. (1986). Islamic Medicine. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Kreuger, H. C. (1963). Avicenna’s Poem on Medicine. Springﬁeld, IL: Thomas. Matossian, M. K. (1989). Poisons of the Past. Molds, Epidemics, and History.
New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McNeill, W. H. (1989). Plagues and Peoples. New York: Anchor Books. Moore, R. I. (2000). The First European Revolution, c. 970–1215. The Making of Europe. New York: Blackwell Publishers.
Rhazes (1948). A Treatise on the Smallpox and Measles (Trans. from the orig- inal Arabic by W. A. Greenhill). London: Sydenham Society.
Scott, S, and Duncan, C. J. (2001). Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Siraisi, N. G. (1990). Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine: An Introduc- tion to Knowledge and Practice. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Stannard, J. (1999). Herbs and Herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Edited by K. E. Stannard and R. Kay. Brookﬁeld, VT: Ashgate. Stannard, J. (1999). Pristina Medicamenta: Ancient and Medieval Medical Bot-any. Edited by K. E. Stannard and R. Kay. Brookﬁeld, VT: Ashgate.
Ullman, M. (1978). Islamic Medicine. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press. Voights, L. E., and McVaugh, M. R. (1984). A Latin Technical Phlebotomy and Its Middle English Translation. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.