Vascular Reconstructive Surgery A very small percentage of men may be candidates for reconstructive surgery to improve penile blood ﬂow. Techniques being used on an experimental basis include revascularization (rerouting blood vessels to allow new, greater blood ﬂow to the penis) and venous ligation (seal- ing off veins in the penis that leak blood during attempted erection).
Overall, the long-term experience with this type of surgery has been disap- pointing. Even the best results show that only one of 20 men can be helped with these procedures. Vascular reconstructive surgery is a very technical and expen- sive procedure. Complications include nerve damage, thrombosis (clotting of blood inside deep-lying veins, usually in the legs), and scar tissue formation. It is rarely used to treat men who do not have a speciﬁc vascular abnormality causing the erectile dysfunction.